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41 Cards in this Set

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What is a Redox Reaction?
Any metabolic reaction involving the transfer of electrons from an electron donor to a electron acceptor.
What happens during a reduction reaction?
Electrons are accepted thus, reducing the over all charge
What happens during a oxidation reaction?
The electron donor is oxidized?
OILRIG
Oxidation is loss, reduction is gain.
What is activation energy?
The amount of energy needed to trigger a chemical reaction.
Coenzyme
Organic cofactor
Obligate Aerobe
Microorganism which requires oxygen as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain.
Facultative Aerobe
Microorganism which can live with or without oxygen.
Obligate Anaerobe
Microorganism which cannot tolerate oxygen and uses a final electron acceptor other than oxygen.
Barophile
Microorganism requiring the extreme hydrostatic pressure found at great depth below the surface of water.
Psychrophile
Microorganism requiring cold temperatures below 20 degrees celcius.
Mesophile
Microorganism requiring temperatures ranging from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C.
Thermophile
Microorganism requiring temperatures over 45 degrees celciums
Hyperthermophile
Microorgansim requiring termeratures above 80 degrees C.
Halophile
Microorganism requiring a saline environment(greater than 9 % NaCl) live in marine environments can tolerate high salt concentrations.
Broth Culture
A liquid, nutrient rich medium used for cultivating microorganisms.
Pour Plate
Method of culturing microorganisms in which colony forming units are separated from one another using a series of dilutions
Streak Plate
Method of culturing microorganisms in which a sterile inoculating loop is used to spread an inoculum across the surgace of a solid medium in Petri dishes.
What are the 4 stages of microbial population growth?
Lag, Log, Stationary and Death
Lag Phase
The population remains at the same number as the bacteria become accustomed to their new environment. Metabolic activity is taking place, and new cells are being produced to ofset the ones that are dying.
Log (logarithmic) Phase
Bacterial growth occurs as its optimal level and the population doubles rapidly. The population is a its metabolic peak. Research experiments are often performed at this time
Stationary Phase
The reproduction of bacterial cells is offset by their death, and the population reaches a plateau.
Death (Decline) Phase
The bacteria die off rapidly, the curve turns down, and the last cell in the population dies.
Selective Media
Culturing medium containing substances that either favor the growth of paticular microorganisms or inhibit the growth of unwanted ones.
Defined Media
Culturing medium of which the exact chemical composition is know.
Differential Media
This media provides environments in which different bacteria can be distinguished from one another.
Transport Media
A special type of medium used to move clinical specimens from one location to another while preserving the relative abundunce of organisms and preventing contamination of the specimen or environment.
Complex Media
Culturing medium that contains nutrients released by the partial digestion of yeast, beef, soy, or other proteins; thus the exact chemical composition is unknown.
What are the characteristics of prokaryotic chromosomes?
1. Contains DNA and associated proteins, but much less protein then Eukaryotic chromosomes.

2. Chromosome consists of nucleoid (an irregularly-shaped regeion, electron-dense, and not enclosed be a membrane.)

3. Chromosome, when stretched out, is a circular loop attached to the inside of the plama membrane, about 1000x the lenghth of the cell.

4. contain only 1 chromosome rarely 2.

5. Only 1 copy
What is a plasmid?
A small, cirular molecule of DNA that replicates independently of the chromosome. Each carries genes for its own replication and often for one or more nonessential function such as resistance to antibiotics.
What is the Ames test used for?
Method of screening mutagens that is commonly used to identify potential cacinogens.
Transcription
Process in which the genetic code from DNA is copied as RNA nucleotide sequences.
Translation
Process in which the sequence of genetic information carried by mRNA is used by ribosomes to construct polypeptides with specific amino acid sequences.
Transduction
Method of horizontal gene transfer in which DNA is transferred from one cell to another via a relicating virus.
Transformation
Method of horizontal gene transfer in which a recipient cell take up DNA from the environment.
What is Recombinant DNA Technology?
Type of biotechnology in which scientists change the genotypes and phenotypes of organisms.
Reverse Transcriptase
Complex enzyme that allows retroviruses to make dsDNA from RNA templates
Complementary DNA
DNA synthesized from an mRNA template using reverse transcriptase.
Recombinant DNA
Cell resulting from genetic recombination between donated and recipient DNA
Restriction Enzyme
Enzyme which cuts DNA at specific nucleotide sequences and is used to produce recombinant DNA molecules.
Name 3 common inorganic electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration.
Nitrate, (NO3-), Nitrite (NO2-), Nitrous oxide (N2O).