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57 Cards in this Set

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Aeromonas
gram (-) Facultative Anaerobe
Diarrhea
Fresh, brackish water
Eikenella Corrodens
gram (-) Facultative Anaerobe
Bite wound
Zoonotic
Leigionella pneumophilia
gram (-) aerobe rod
Able to survive in alveolar macrophages
Respiratory
Systemic symptoms with pneumonia
Legionnaires’ Disease
Leigonella Micdadei
Pontiac Fever
Brucella
gram (-) aerobe, rod
survive within macrophages & monocytes
Zoonotic
Cows,other animals
Brucellosis
Helicobacter pylori  
gram (-) rod, curved/straight/helical
Ulcers, Gastritis
Moraxella catarrhalis  
gram (-) coccobacilli
Commensals of upper respiratory tract
Diseases:
Sinusitis, Otitis media, respiratory tract infections – PNEUMONIA
Typically β-lactamase positive
Respiratory
Haemophilus influenzae  
gram (-) coccobacilli
First bacteria completely sequenced
Vaccine
Can survive w/n Macrophages
Respiratory
Doesn't cause flu
Haemophilus ducreyi
gram (-) coccobacilli
Chanchroid
STD
Pasteurella multocida  
gram (-) coccobacilli
Bite wound
Localized cellulitis & lymphadenitis
Zoonotic
Cat bites, especially
Bordetella pertussis
gram (-) coccobacilli
Whooping cough

Most contagious in catarrhal stage – non-specific symptoms lasts 1-2 weeks
Paroxysmal stage – explosive coughing fits
Convalescent stage – 1-2 months – gradual decline in cough, least infectious stage
Rarely spreads, but can go to CNS
Common secondary infections include pneumonia and otitis media
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
gram (-) cocci
Only fimbriated (piliated) cells are virulent
STD
Also causes arthritis
Gonorrhea
Neisseria meningitidis
gram (-) diplococci
petechial rash
LOS (Septic Shock)
Meningitis, Meningococcemia
Well at noon, dead at 4
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Eaton's Agent
smallest of all bacteria
Respiratory
Lacks a cell wall,
"walking pneumonia"
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Respiratory
Consumption
Resurgence due to AIDS
Mycobacteria
Non-motile
Cell wall has high quantities of lipids
CAN SURVIVE IN STRONGLY ACID & ALKALINE CONDITIONS
Cell wall retains dye – acid-fast bacilli (“AFB” or Red Snappers)
** LONG DOUBLING TIME! **
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare
MAI or MAC
Frequent in AIDS patients
Mycobacterium leprae
Hansen’s disease/Leprosy
SPIROCHETES
Flexible, spiral-shaped, gram-negative rods
Move by twisting & turning
Too thin to be seen under light microscope – NEED DARKFIELD MICROSCOPE
Include Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira
Treponema pallidum
Syphilis
Spirochete
1st Stage - hard-chancre
2nd Stage - Rash starts on trunk, goes to extremities and PALMS AND SOLES
3rd Stage - non-contageous
Borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme disease
"Bullseye"
Zoonotic
Spirochete
Chlamydia trachomatis
Obligate intracellular gram (-) bacteria
Most common STD in US
Asymptomatic
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Respiratory
common pathogen in mild bronchitis & sinusitis
Pneumonia generally involves single lobe of lungs
Rickettsia
• Small gram-negative rods, obligate intracellular parasites
• Habitat – global distribution, most are zoonoses
• Transmission – Arthropod to human, arthropod to arthropod (via egg)
• Pathogenesis – Cellular/tissue destruction causes dermatological manifestations (RASH)
o Organs can become involved, if perfusion occurs it leads to death
Rickettsia rickettsii
Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever
Zoonotic
Skin manifestations (rash)
Rickettsia typhi
Typus
Zoonotic
Skin manifestations (rash)
Bacteroides fragilis
Obligate Anaerobes

• High concentration in intestines
• Capsule – anti-phagocytic, abscess formation
• Endotoxin – low toxicity, structure different than other LPS
Actinomyces israelii
Obligate Anaerobe
• Branching, anaerobic bacillus – LOOKS LIKE FUNGI!!
• Part of normal flora of mouth, respiratory/digestive tract, vagina
o Acquired from normal flora from damage to mucosal barrier
• Diseases:
o Cervicofacial infection – chronic abscess with sinus tract infection, purulent discharge
o Thoracic, abdominal or pelvic actinomycosis PID!!
• Treatment - Penicillin G, draining of abscesses
Clostridium tetani
gram (+) bacillus Anaerobe
Tetanus ("lockjaw")
Toxin
spore-former
Clostridium perfringens
gram (+) Anaerobe
Produces lecithinase & enterotoxins
Gas gangrene
Anaerobe
Toxin, spore-former
Clostridium botulinum
Botulism
Gram (+) Anaerobe
Toxin
spore-former
food contamination
Clostridium difficile
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea CDAD
Anaerobe
Toxin (Megacolon)
spore-former
Malassezia furfur
Superficial Pityriasis (tinea versicolor)
Skin infections (hypo- and hyperpigmented areas)
very common in tropical environments
Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton
Cutaneous Dermatophytosis Skin and Nail infections (Ring-like lesions, patches of erythema, scaling)
Tinea capitis
Tinea barbae
Tinea corporis
Tinea pedis
Tinea cruris
Tinea manus
Tinea unguium
Tinea capitis - (scalp)
Tinea barbae - (beard)
Tinea corporis - (body)
Tinea pedis - (athlete's foot)
Tinea cruris - (jock itch)
Tinea manus - (hand)
Tinea unguium - (nails)
Sporothrix schenckii
Subcutaneous
Sporotrichosis
Lymphocutaneous disease widespread in warmer climates
often seen in gardeners and florists
Fonsecaea, Cladisporum, and Phialophora species Chromoblastomycosis (also called Chromomycosis)
Subcutaneous
warty nodules at site of inoculation, develops into cauliflower-like appearance
Chronic skin infection
seen primarily in tropical climates
Mycetoma
Subcutaneous
(Maduromycosis, or Madura foot)
Localized chronic infection of the skin
seen primarily in tropical climates, can be caused by many 7 different genera of fungi
Blastomyces
Pathogenic (systemic)
An endemic mycosis
Pulmonary (systemic) and cutaneous
In Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri River valleys
Blastomycosis
Coccidioides
Pathogenic (systemic)
An endemic mycosis
Pulmonary and disseminated
Found in desert areas, southwestern US
Coccidioidomycosis
Histoplasma
Pathogenic (systemic)
An endemic mycosis
Pulmonary
Found in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys
Histoplasmosis
Parcoccidioides
Pathogenic (systemic)
An endemic mycosis Pulmonary and disseminated
Mainly found in Central and South America
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Lobomycosis
Chronic, subcutaneous, progressive infection – traumatic inoculation of fungus
Natural infection in dolphins
Hard, painless nodules on extremities, face, ear
Ulcerative lesions
Loboa loboi
Rhinosporidiosis
– Chronic infection of skin divers
– masses at nasal mucosa, conjunctiva, genitalia, rectum
Seropurulent discharge from nasal lesions
Rhinosporidium seeberi
Natural reservoir – fish, aquatic insects
Treatment – surgery
Candida albicans
Opportunistic (systemic)
produces pseudohyphae
Candidiasis
Local (skin) or deep-seated
a yeast
most common Candida species (most susceptible also)
Aspergillus
Opportunistic (systemic)
Disseminated (also bronchopulmonary allergic type)
may also cause a "fungus ball" in the lungs
often seen when soil is stirred up during construction projects
Aspergillosis
Cryptococcus
Opportunistic (systemic)
Meningoencephalitis
other an encapsulated yeast, often seen in AIDS patients
pigeon poop, India Ink Stain
Cryptococcosis
Rhizopus or Mucor
Opportunistic (systemic)
Zycomycosis also called Mucormycosis
Mucocutaneous and rhinocerebral
usually seen in immunocompromised patients
Entamoeba histolytica
Diarrhea (but can also cause invasive disease in the liver, brain, and lungs)
Protozoa
Infectious cyst and invasive trophozoite
often causes ulcers in the large bowel and bloody diarrhea
Amebiasis
Giardia lamblia
Diarrhea (often greasy stools, foul-smelling)
Protozoa
often causes watery diarrhea with a lot of bloating,
most common cause of waterborne diarrhea in the US
Giardiasis
Cryptosporidium parvum
Diarrhea (crampy abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting)
may cause biliary tract disease
Protozoa
outbreaks associated with waterparks, swimming pools, reservoirs
Cryptosporidiosis
Trichomonas vaginalis
"Trich" (slang)
STD (green, frothy vaginal discharge, penile discharge)
Protozoa
Often detected on Pap smear
Plasmodium
(falciparum most resistant) Malaria
Systemic disease with many symptoms (fatigue, anemia, headache, myalgias) - can cause cerebral malaria, respiraory disease, acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis Protozoa
Transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito,
pregnant women and small children are at greatest risk
Toxoplasma gondii
Mono-like syndrome (adenopathy, headache, fever, malaise, sore throat) - may cause blurred vision, altered mental status, seizures
Protozoa
oocysts excreted in cat feces,
tissue cysts in undercooked meat
Toxoplasmosis
Acaris lumbricoides
Roundworm infestation Worm infestation (pulmonary symptoms, epigastric pain, malnutrition)
Heminth (specifically a nematode)
major cause of growth and cognitive delay and malnutrition,
most common parasitic infection in humans
Sarcoptes scabei
Skin lesions (especially between the fingers and toes, genitalia, umbilicus, areolae, axillary folds)-causes intense itching
Ectoparasitic arthropod
Found worldwide, associated with poor hygiene and crowded living conditions
Scabies
Pediculus humanus humanus (also called humanus corporis, body louse), humanus capitus (head louse), and Pthirus pubis (crab or pubic louse)
Pediculosis (pubic lice also called "crabs")
Skin lesions (hemoarrhagic macules and papules) -intense itching and excoriation Ectoparasitic arthropod spread by sharing of clothing, contaminated combs, sexual contact