• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/68

Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Helper T-cells function to help regulate the activities of ___ cells and ____ cells during an immune response
Helper T-cells function to help regulate the activities of B cells and cytotoxic T cells during an immune response
what are the two types of helper T-cells ?
Type 1 Helper T cell and Type 2 helper T cell
what type of helper T-cell assists B cells?
type 2 helper T cell
what type of helper T-cell express CD26 and a cytokine receptor named CCR5
type 1 helper T cells
__ are proteins secreted by leukocytes
-immune system modulators
-usually for local communication
cytokines
___ is when you sense something on the outside and send message inside
signal transduction
what type of helper T cells have cytokine receptors CCR3 and CCR4?
type 2 helper T cells
what type of helper T-cell assist cytotoxic T cells?
type 1 helper T cell
____ is the 3D shape of proteins that makes its function
conformation
____ change causes a signal transduction which leads to a cascade of events
conformational change causes signal transduction which leads to a cascade of events
___make up the majority of cells produced during B cell proliferation
plasma Cells
each plasma cell secretes only antibody molecules complementary to the specific ___ ____
antigenic determinant
t/f

are long-lived cells that die within a few months of activation, through their antibodies and progeny can persist
false, short lived
t/f

Memory B cells are long-lived cells that divide divide many times and then persist in the lymphoid tissue
false

memory B cells are long lived cells that divide only a few time and then persist in the lymphoid
t/f

memory b cells are available to initiate antibody production
true
Two types of acquired (adaptive) immunity :

cell-mediated immunity:

imunity mediated by ____
cells of the immune system

-altered self cells
-cells infected with viruses
-intracellular bacteria
-cancer cells
t/f

cell-mediated immune response:

responses to extracellular pathogen and abnormal body cells
false,

responses to intracellular pathogens and abnormal body cells
cell-mediated immune response:

the most common intracellular pathogens are ___ but the response is also effective against intracellular bacteria
viruses
cell-mediated immune response is triggered when ___ ___ or the pathogen are displayed on the host cell's surface
antigenic determinants
what is a porin forming compound causes lysis
perforin
what proteins can recognize self and non self
MHC proteins
MHC proteins present processed antigens to ____
T-cells
T/f

MHC proteins include few classes of proteins
false,

MHC proteins include several classes of proteins
MHC was first identified in ___ __
graft patients
what is important in tissue rejection?
MHC proteins
what is the function of MHC complex?
function to hold and position antigenic determinants for presentation to T cells
Antigens bind to the _____ ___ of MHC molecules
antigen-binding groove
what are the two types of MHC proteins?
MHC class I
MHC Class II
Class I MHCI proteins are found on all nucleated cells but not on ____
RBC
MHC protein classes bind to ___ and ____
TCRs and CD8
t/f

MHC proteins present exogenous processed antigens
false

MHC proteins present endogenous processed antigens
what class of MHC binds to TCRs and CD8
class 1 (MHCI)
what class of MHCs are found on antigen presenting cells?
class 2 MHCII

APC
macrophages, B-cells, dendritic cells
t/f

Class 2 (MHC II) present Exogenous antigens
true

MHC I- present endogenous processed antigens

MHCII- present exogenous antigens
__ cant see antigen so they need APC to present it to them
Helper T-cells
___ cell receptors recongnize processed antigens in the form
T cell receptors
what are the Major antigen presenting cells (APCs) are:
B-cells, macrophages, and dendrites
What class of MHCs bind to TCR and CD4
Class 2 MHC (MHC II)
MHC I binds to peptides generated from "_____"
internal molecules
MHCII binds to peptides generated from "____"
non-self molecules
CD4 binds to MHC class __
CD8 binds to MHC class __
CD4 binds to MHC class II
CD8 binds to MHC class I
Antigen Processing:

___ are large antigen molecules with readily accessible, repeating antigenic determinants
T-independent antigen
Antigen Processing:

__ cells can bind these directly without being processed
Stimulates ____ cells to differentiate into a plasma cell and produce antibodies
B cells
Antigen processing:

___ are smaller antigens with less accessible antigenic determinants
T-dependent antigens
T-dependent antigens

Helper T-cells are assisted by ___ that process antigen to make the antigenic determinants more accessible
leukocytes
processing of endogenous antigens:

-The intracellular pathogens are also digested into smaller antigenic determinants
-each fragment binds to MHCI molecule located in ____ ___ ___
endoplasmic reticulum membrane

-the membrane is packaged into a vesicle by a Golgi body which is inserted into the cytoplasmic membrane so the antigen is displayed on the cell's surface
processing of exogenous antigens:

APC internalizes the invading pathogens and enzymatically digest it into smaller antigenic fragments which are contained within a ___
phagolysosome
B cells require involvement from helper T cells to target ___ antigens
T-dependent antigens
processing of exogenous antigens:

Phagolysosomes fuse with a vessicle containing ___ molecules
MHCII
processing of exogenous antigens:

APC internalizes the invading pathogen and enzymatically digest it into smaller antigenic fragments which are contained within a phagolysosome

-phagolysosomes fuse with vessicle containing MHCII molecules
-each fragment binds to the ____ ___ ___ of a complementary MHCII molecule
antigen-binding groove

-the fused vessicle then inserts the MHCII-antigen complex into the cytoplasmic membrane so the antigen is presented on the outside of the cell
what antibody is the first to see the infection?

IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE?
IgM

which is a large pentamere
___ is A theory that explains how the immune system responds to the million of different foreign antigens it encounters in a highly specific way
clonal selection theory
t/f each animal generates perhaps a million different lymphocytes
false,
each animal generates perhaps a BILLION different lymphocytes
millions of different B-cells
----protein antigen--->
a few hundred B-cells are stimulated
------->
A few hundred different antibodies are produced

Each antibody recongnizes a particular ___
epitope
Heavy Chain variablility:

____(#) variable region segments
~200
Heavy chain variability :

___ (#) diversity region
~50
Heavy chain variabliity:

___(#) joining segments
4
Heavy chain variability:

___(#) constant regions
5
___ is induced unresponsiveness to certain antigens
-clonal anergy an danergized cells
Immune Tolerance
by producing antibodies in segments, you can create ___
variability
what are the two mechanisms in which immediate destruction of donated blood with preexisting antibodies to foreign blood group occurs?
antibody-bound cells may be phagocitized by macrophages and neutrophils

Hemolysis- antibodies agglutinate cells, and complement ruptures them
what are three things that can result from a blood transfusion that was not a compatable blood type with the recipient?
kidney damage, blood clotting and stress on the liver
Rh positive individuals have Rh antigen on their ____ while Rh- individuals do not
red blood cells
____ aka anti-Rh serum
-destroys any fetal RBC that may have entered the body
-sensitization of the mother does not occur and subsequent pregnancies are safer
Rhogam
what antibody attacks the baby b/c it can pass placenta
IgG
___ is antibodies agglutinate cells, and complement ruptures them
hemolysis
___ is A theory that explains how the immune system responds to the million of different foreign antigens it encounters in a highly specific way
clonal selection theory
t/f each animal generates perhaps a million different lymphocytes
false,
each animal generates perhaps a BILLION different lymphocytes