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25 Cards in this Set

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aerobic respiration
energy yielding process in which molecules, often organic, are oxidized with oxygen as the final electron receptor
anaerobic respiration
energy yielding process in which the terminal electron acceptor for an electron transport chain is a molecule other than oxygen
anoxygenic photosynthesis
photosynthesis that does not oxidize water to produce oxygen
ATP Synthase
a membrane-bound enzyme that synthesizes ATP from ADP +Pi using the energy derived from the proton motive force
bateriochlorophyll
a modified chlorophyl that is the primary light trapping pigment in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria
bacteriorhodopsin
a transmembranous protein to which retinal is bound; it functions as a light driven proton pump
chemiosmotic hypothesis
the hypothesis that a proton and electrochemical gradient are generated by electron transport and then used to perform work (e.g. drive ATP synthesis)
chemolithotroph
oxidizes reduced inorganic compounds to derive both energy and electrons
chlorophyl
the green photosynthetic pigment that consists of tetrapyrrole ring with a central magnesium atom
cyclic photophosphorylation
the formation of ATP when light energy is used o move electrons cyclically though an electron transport chain during photosynthesis
dark reactions
pathways in which photosynthetically derived energy is used to drive CO2 fixation
Embden-Meyerhoff pathway
a glycolytic pathway that degrades glucose to pyruvate and also generates several precursor metabolites
Entner-Doudoroff pathway
a glycolytic pathway that converts glucose to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde3phosphate
fermentation
an energy yielding process in which an organic molecule is oxidized without an exogenous electron acceptor or participation of an electron transport chain
glycolosis
the conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid by use of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, or Entner-Doudoroff pathway
light reactions
photochemical events that lead to the synthesis of ATP and in some cases, the reduction of NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H
noncyclic photophosphorylation
the process in which light energy is sued to make ATP and reducing power when electrons are moved from water to NADP+ during oxygenic photosynthesis
oxidative phosphorilation
the synthesis of ATP from ADP+Pi using energy made available during electron trasnport initiated by the oxidaiton of a chemical energy source
oxygenic photosynthesis
photosynthesis that oxidizes water to form oxygen; the form of photosynthesis characteristic of PLANTS, PROTISTS & CYANOBACTERIA
pentose phosphate pathway
a glycolytic pathway that forms reducing power (NADPH) for biosynthesis and several precursor metabolites
photophosphorylation
the synthesis of ATP from ADP + Pi using energy made available during electron transport initiated by the absorption of light energy
photosynthesis
the trapping of light energy and its conversion to chemical energy, which is then used to reduce CO2 and incorporate into organic molecules
proton motive force
the potential energy arising from a chemical and charge gradient of protons across a membrane
substrate level phosphorylation
the synthesis of ATP from ADP by phosphorylation coupled with the exergonic break-down of a high-energy organic molecule
tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
the cycle that oxidizes acetyl coenzyme A to CO2 and generates NADH and FADH2 for oxidation in the electron transport chain; the cycle also supplies precursor metabolites; citric acid and Krebbs cycle.