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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define active immunization
Administering a vaccine to a patient activity mounts a protective immune response
Define passive immunization
A susceptible individual acquires temporary immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by other individual or animals
Which type of immunization would be used for an individual recently exposed to or currently infected by a particular pathogen?
What is an attenuated vaccine?
A vaccine that contains active, but avirulent virus
What are some some risks associated with attenuated vaccines?
High risks for pregnant women and those that are immunosurpressed. There is also risk of reversion or mutation
What type of immune response do viral attenuated vaccines trigger?
Triggers both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses
What are some examples of commonly given attenuated vaccines?
MMR, Chicken pox
What is an inactivated vaccine?
A vaccine that contains non-living viruses. Whole or subunits of the viruses may be used.
What are some benefits associated with inactivated vaccines?
The virus is dead so cannot have herd immunity.
What are some risks associated with inactivated vaccines?
1. No herd immunity
2. Whole agents can cause inflammation response
3. Antigenically wek so usually have to coincide with Adjuvant or Booster
What type of immune response dok inactivated vaccines trigger?
Triggers cell-mediated immune response only.
What are some examples of commonly given inactivated vaccines?
Polio, Hepatitis A, Influenza
What is a toxoid vaccine?
A vaccine made from modified toxins, meaning that they are no longer toxic, but is still antigenic
What type of immune response do toxoid vaccines trigger?
They trigger antibody-mediated response only
What are some examples of commonly given toxoid vaccines?
Diptheria and Tetnus
Why do most toxoid vaccines require regular boosters?
Need regular boosters because the are antigenically weak
Define herd immunity
Immunity beyond the individual receiving the vaccine
What types of vaccines stimulate herd immunity?
Only attenuated vaccines
What are some issues associated with vaccine safety?
1. Mild toxicity - (most common)
2. Anaphylatic shock (Exp: Flu vaccine grown in chicken eggs, if allergic to eggs you go into shock)
3. Residual virulence - passed to immunosurpressed people
4. Preservatives/adjuvants
What is an adjuvant?
Chemical added to a vaccine to increase it's ability to stimulate activate immunity. There are risks of local inflammation and high individual doses and multiple dosing increases risk of producing allergies
What are some commonly used adjuvants?
Aluminum phosphate (alum), saponin (soaplike plant product), Mineral oil and Freund's complete adjuvant (mineral oil containing killed mycobacteria)
What is antisera and when is it used?
Antisera is blood fluid containing antibodies which bind to and protect against toxins. It is used in passive immunizations during the administration of performed antibodies to a patient. It is common in RSV vaccine for babies.
What are some benefits associated with attenuated vaccines?
1. Herd Immunity
2. Has replicating mimcrobes so don't need much
3. Get both types of immune response