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37 Cards in this Set

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The industrial application of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a useful product.
Biotechnology
Manufacturing and manipulating genetic material in vitro; also called genetic engineering
Recombinant DNA
(rDNA)
Technology
A population of cells arising from a single parent cell.
Clone
Choosing one organism from a population to grow because of its desirable traits.
Artificial Selection
Techniques used to modify a gene in a specific location to produce the desired polypeptide.
Site-directed Mutagenesis
An enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA at specific sites between nucleotides.
Restriction enzymes
Addition of a methyl group (-CH3) to a molecule; methylated cytosine is protected from digestion by restriction enzymes
Methylates
A technique using DNA polymerase to make multiple copies of a DNA template in vitro.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
The process in which genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA in solution

The changing of a normal cell into a cancerous cell
Transformation
A technique by which DNA is inserted into a cell using an electrical current.
Electroportation
A gram-positive bacterium or plant cell treated to remove the cell wall.
Protoplasts
A method of joining two cells by first removing their cell walls; used in genetic engineering
Protoplast fusion
A technique that requires the use of a glass micropipette with a diameter that is much smaller than the cell. The micropipette punctures the plasma membrane, and DNA can be injected through it.
Microinjection
A collection of cloned DNA fragments created by inserting restriction enzyme fragments in a bacterium, yeast, or phage.
Gene library
A region of a eukaryotic chromosome that encodes a protein.
Exons
A region in a eukaryotic gene that does not code for a protein or mRNA.
Introns
An RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; an enzyme that synthesizes a complementary DNA from an RNA template.
Reverse transcriptase
DNA made in vitro from an mRNA template
Complementary DNA (cDNA)
The identification of a colony containing a desired gene by using a DNA probe that is complementary to that gene.
Colony hybridization
A short, labeled, single strand of DNA or RNA used to locate its complementary strand in a quantity of DNA.
DNA probes
A vaccine consisting of an antigenetic fragment
Subunit vaccines
circular plasmids that include a gene encoding a viral protein under the transcriptional control of a promoter region active in human cells.
DNA vaccines
Treating a disease by replacing abnormal genes
Gene therapy
A natural process that occurs in a wide variety of organisms and is apparantly a defense against viruses and transposons.
Gene Silencing
cellular degradation of double-stranded RNA, along with single-stranded RNA having the same sequence
RNA Interference (RNAi)
An intermediate in the RNAi process in which the long double-stranded RNA has ben cut up into short (~21 nucleotides) double-stranded RNA
Short Interfering RNAs (siRNA)
A process by which the nucleotide sequence of DNA is determined.
DNA sequencing
A technique for determining the nucleotide sequnce in an organism's genome.
Random Shotgun Sequencing
The science of determining the function of genes through computer-assisted analysis.
Bioinformatics
The science of determining all of the proteins expressed in a cell.
Proteomics
A technique that uses DNA probes to detect the presense of specific DNA in restriction fragments separated by electrophoresis.
Southern blotting technique
Techniques for determining which genes are in a cell's genome
Genetic screening
Analysis of DNA by electrophoresis of restriction enzyme fragments of the DNA.
DNA fingerprinting
developed because hospitals and food manufacturers can be sued in courts of law and because microorganisms can be used as weapons
forensic microbiology
deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter
nanotechnology
an agrobacterium plasmid carrying genes for tumor induction in plants
Ti plasmid
DNA that is complementary to the DNA encoding a protein; the antisense RNA transcript will hybridize with the mRNA encoding the protein and inhibit synthesis of the protein
Antisense DNA technology