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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is genetics?
It is the the inheritance, or heredity of living things.
What is a genome
It is the sum total of genetic material of a cell
What is a chromosome
It is a discrete cellular structure composed of a neatly packaged elongated DNA molecule
What do we look at when we discuss genetics
The transmission of bilological properties (traits) from parent to offspring, the expression & variation of those traits, the structure & function of the genetic material. how this material changes
What are chromosomes subdivided into?
Basic informational packets called GENES
What is genotype
sum of all gene types
What is Phenotype
Expression of the genotypes like blue hair blonde eyes
What are the 3 basic categories of genes
Replication
Transcription
Translation
What is the basic unit of DNA structure
nucleotide
Each nucleotide is composed of what?
phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous base
What are the nitrogen bases made of
purines and pyrimidines
What is the flow of Genetics
DNA =>RNA=>Protein
Replication
Transcription
Translation
Leading strand
RNA primer initiates the 5’ to 3’ synthesis of DNA in continuous manner
Lagging strand
Multiple Okazaki fragments are synthesized
Okazaki fragments are ligated together to form one continuous strand
RNA
Transcription
Message RNA (mRNA)
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Codon
What is the process of Transcription
A single strand of RNA is transcribed from a template strand of DNA
RNA polymerase catalyzes the reaction
Synthesis in 5’ to 3’ direction
What is the process of mRNA
Copy of a structural gene or genes of DNA
Can encode for multiple proteins on one message
Thymidine is replaced by uracil
The message contains a codon (three bases)
What is the process of tRNA
Copy of specific regions of DNA
Complimentary sequences form hairpin loops
Amino acid attachment site
Anticodon
Participates in translation (protein synthesis)
What is the process of rRNA
Consist of two subunits (70S)
A subunit is composed of rRNA and protein
Participates in translation
Ribosomes bind to the mRNA, enabling tRNAs to bind, followed by protein synthesis.
What is a codon
Triplet code that specifies a given amino acid
Multiple codes for one amino acid
20 amino acids
Start codon
Stop codons
Discuss Protein and translation
Translation
Protein synthesis have the following participants
mRNA
tRNA with attached amino acid
Ribosome