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43 Cards in this Set

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Axial Filaments
A type of flagellum that lies in the periplasmic space of spirochetes & is responsible for locomotion
Bacilli
bacterial cell shape that is cylandrical
cell wall
made of peptidoglycan
chromosomes
tightly coiled bodies in cells that r primary site of genes
Cocci
a spherical shaped bacterial rod
Coccobacilli
an elongated coccus, a short thick, oval-shaped bacterial rod
Diplocci
spherical or oval shaped bacteria typically found in pairs
endospore
a small, dormant, resistant derivative of a bacterial cell that germinates under favorable growth conditions into a vegetative cell.genera Bacillus & Clostridium are typical sporeformers.
fimbriae
a short, numerous surface appendage on some bacteria that provides adhesion but not locomotion
flagellum
a structure that is used to propel the organism through a fluid environment
Nucleoid
The basophilic nuclear region or nuclear body that contains the bacterial chromosome
Palisades
the characteristic arrangement of Corynebacterium cells resembling a row of fence posts and created by snapping.
Plasmids
Extrachromosal genetic unit characterized by several features. A plasmid is a double-stranded DNA that is smaller than & replicates independently of the cell chromosome; it bears genes tht r nt esssential 4 cell growth it cn bear genes tht code 4 adaptive traits; & it is transmissible to other bacteria
pleomorphic (pleomorphism)
Normal variability of cell shapes in a single species
Procaryotic
Small cells, lacking special structures such as a nucleus & organelles. all procaryotes are microorganisms
Ribosomes
Abilobed macromolecular complex of ribonucleoprotein that coordinates the codons of mRNA w tRNA anticodons & in so doing constitutes the peptide assembly site
Rikettsias
Medically important family of bacteria, commonly carried by ticks, lice & and fleas. Significant cause of important emerging diseases
Sarcina
a cubical packer of 8, 16 or more cells; the cellular arrangement of the genus Sarcina in the family Micrococcaceae
Spirilla
A type of bacterial cell w/ a rigid spiral shape & external flagella
Spriochetes
a coiled. spiral-shaped bacterium that has endoflagella & flexes as it moves
tetrads
groups of 4
vibrios
a curved rod shaped bacterial cell
Identify elements of procaryotic cells
external- appendages, flagella, pili, fimbriae glycocalyx capsule, slime layer. unternak, cytoplsm,ribosm,inclusions, nucleoid/chromosoms, actin cytoskeleton, endospore, cell envelope, outer membrane, cell wall, cell membrane
discuss bacterial motility & adhesion
is w/the flagellum which is used to self propel, freely thrgh an aqueous habitat. pilus r for attachment & mating, enable conjugation, transfer of DNA fimbriae r smaller than flagella & are iumportant for attachment
Identify genetic material in bacterial cells
Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. ribonucleic RNA, Ribosomes. ( also in cytoplasm)
Discuss endospore
During nutrient depleted conditions some bacteria (vegetative cell) form into a endospore in order to survive. nt exactly alive. form whn bacteria is threatened.
What is actin
a protein fiber(cytoskeleton) present in some bacteria & is involved in maintaining cell shape
Inclusion Bodies
enable a cell to store nutrients and to survive nutrient depleted environments
L-forms
mutations can cause some bacteria to lose the ability to synthesize the cell wall and thy r called l-forms
porins
is a channel
slime layer
is sticky, alolows bacteria to stick to other parts of your body and a safety mechanism to survive
cytoplasm
it is the sire for cell metabolim
What are the cell shapes
Coccus, rod or bacillus, cell arrangements, cell size. you can tell what family by the size & shape
In regards to bacterial cell wall
gram-negative bacteria the envelope consists of an outer membrane cell wall & cell membrane, in gram neg, only have cell wall & cell membrane
Discuss classification
phenotypic is the old way based on humans, what it looks like. molecular method DNA structure, mk pure culture in computer assisted program can see the DNA & match 2 a reference easily.
unique groups of bacteria
intracellular parasites, photsynthetic bacteria, green & purple sulfur bacteria, gliding & fruiting bacteria (grow antenae), Archaea bacteria
Archaea bacteria
Associated with extreme environments, contain unique cell walls, contain unique internal structures
Eubacteria
considered true bacteria
Key terms
1 spirochete
2 gram stain +/-
3 strep
4 staph
1 common syphillis
2 gram r dead cuz you heated, help determine antibiotic
3 is coccus is positive
4 is cocus gram+
Shapes of coccus
diplococci, tetrads, sarcinae, cocci in chains, cocci in clusters
types of rod or bacilus
pili-shaped rods, cocco bacilli, irregular rods, palisades arrangement, spore-forming rods, filamentous rods
types of spiral forms
sprillum rigid helix/spirochete flexible helix, vibrios (curved rods)
bergey's manual
organizes the kingdom Procaryotae in to 4 major division. Gracilicutes, firmicutes, tenericutes