Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/56

Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Zacharias Janssen
Invents first compound microscope
Robert Hooke
first to observe cells
Anton van Leewenhoek
observes simple microrganisms
Francesco Redi (Spontaneous generation vs biogenesis)
Meat in the jar experiement (maggots)
Louis Jablot (Spontaneous generation vs biogenesis)
hot soup experiement
John Needham (Spontaneous generation vs biogenesis)
repeats Jablot's experiement but cooled the hot soup first before covering it (growth of microorganisms in broth)
Louis Pasteur
Father of Microbiology, pasturerization, ended spontaneous generation (abiogenisis vs biogenisis)
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
Physician contributing to the germ theory
Dr. Semmelweis
Disinfection of doctor's hands reduced childbed fever (germ theroy)
Joesph Lister
uses first disinfectant in surgery (phenol) reduced post- surgical infections
Robert Koch
Koch's postulates, indentified anthrax bacterium developed method for identifying pathogens
Koch's Postulates
1. microbe isolated from sick animal
2. pure culture of microbe grown in lab
3. pure culture introduced into healthy animals
4. re-isolation of same microbe from sick animals
Edward Jenner
Developed the first vaccine (smallpox)
Louis Pasteur
developed first vaccine for rabies
Walter Reed
erradication program (get rid of mosiquitos yellow fever)
Paul Elrich
First synthetic drug (salvarsan- used to treat syphillis)
Alexander Flemming
Discovered the first antibiotic (penicillin)
Avery, McLeod , McCarthy
determined DNA is the hereditary material
Watson and Crick
Discovers structure of DNA
Sanger and Gilbert
method to sequence DNA
Stanley Prusiner
discovers the presence of prions (infectious proteins)
ei: mad cow disease
What is Microbiology?
Study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye, thier activities and thier effect on other living things
Major groups of microbes
Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, Helminths, Viruses
History of microscope
Janssen brothers constructed the first compund microscope (modern magnifying glass)

Leeuwenhoek made and used powerful simple microscopes (father of microscopy)
Classfiication
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Nomenclature
a system or set of terms or symbols especially in a particular science, discipline, or art. (process of naming)
Taxonomy
system for naming, organizing and classifying living things

Major Activities
1. Identification of microbes
2. classification- grouping using taxa
3. nomenclature or naming
Three Domain Systems of Classification
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Four Kingdoms
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Types of Microscopes
1. Brightfield
2. Darkfield
3. phase-contrast
4. fluorescent
5. electron
Flagella (external to the cell wall)
motililty
Axial filament (external to the cell wall)
motility in spirochetes
Fimbria (external to the cell wall)
attachment
Pili (external to the cell wall)
conjugation
Structure of peptidoglycan: NAM AND NAG
N-acetyl muramic acid and N-acetyl glusosamne
Amino Acids 4 that crosslink
Meter
basic unit of life
m=39.37 inches
millimeter
used for large protozoa
mm=1/1000 m
micrometer
used to measure bacteria
um= 1/1000000 m
nanometer
used to measure viruses and cell organelles
nm= 1/1000,000,000 m
four functions of capsule
1. Protects pathogens by inhibiting phagocytosis
2. attachment
3. increased virulence
4. prevents dehydration
Cell Wall
Contains alternating sugars NAM and NAG
Gram Positive Bacteria
Staphylococci
Streptococci
Bacillus
Clostridum
Gram Negative Bacteria
Enterobactericia
Escherichia
Salmonella
Shigella
Proteus
Pseudomonas
Neisseria
Mycoplasma
Smallest of all bacteria; lack cell wall; very difficult to grow
Mycobacterium
mycolic acids(fats or lipids) in cell wall
Cytoplasma
ground substance of cells; everything disolved in
Plasma Membrane
regulates movement of molecules in and out the cell; inner surface contains enezymes for ATP synthesis; structure bilayer and energy is produced here
Nucleoid
regulates structure and function of the cell; located in center of cytoplasma; chromosome; bacteria have a singular circular chromosome
Ribosomes
function protein synthesis
Tetracycline (prokaryotic ribsomes)
shut down protein synthesis in bacteria only
cell inclusion
used for storage and gets anything that the cell needs
Types of Cell Inclusion
Polysaccharide granules
1. starch
2. glycogen
metachromatic granules(volutin) contains stored polyphosphate
Poly-beta- hydroxybutyrate (PHB) a store lipid
Endospores
extremley resistant to chemicals, heat, and drying; no metabolism; survive for more than 1000 years
Process of sporeformers
sporulation- development of an endospore within a typical (vegetative) cell
germination- formation of a vegetative cell from an endospore under favorable conditions
Germination
requirements; water, nutrients, and suitable temp
1.freespore absorbs water
2. new cell wall and other structures synthesized
3. freespore swells and ruptures releasing new vegetative bacterium (purpose of spore formation survival during harsh conditions)
Produce new bacteria
Medically important endospore formers
Clostridium
C.botulinum- botulism(neurotoxin)
C. tetani - tetanus(neurotoxin)
Bacillus
b. anthracis- anthrax