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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
photosynthetic bacteria; may fix nitrogen from air
photosynthetic eukaryotes
eukaryotes classified primarily by their means of locomotion
general name for a rod-shaped bacterium
general name for a spherical bacterium
prokaryotes whose cell walls lack peptidoglycan and are often found in extreme environments
bacteria generally reproduce by a process called _______ into two equal daughter cells
binary fission
the set of criteria that prove that a specific microorganism is the cause of a specific disease is known today as
Koch's postulates
the concept that living cells can arise only from other living cells is called
one objection that proponents of spontaneous generation made to experiments in which nutrient fluids were heated in sealed containers was that heating destroyed some _____ in the air
vital force
according to the rules applied to the scientific naming of a biological organism, the _____ name is always capitalized
Paul Ehrlich discovered an arsenic derivative, _______, that was effective against syphilis
antimicrobial chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi are called
What are advantages of using microorganisms to control insect pests?
biolgical control agents, such as B. thoringiensis, are specific for insects, so they don't pose a threat to humans and other animals. Biological control aents do not remain in the soil as toxic pollutants that enter and concentrate in the food chain as do many chemical agents, such as DDT.
helical, move by flagella, if present
spherical; in chains
divide in three regular planes; spheres form cubelike packets
helical; axial filaments for motility
a simple, commalike curve
name means, "little staff"
golgi complex

e or p
eukaryotic cell
meiosis occurs in reproduction

e or p
eukaryotic cell
usually single circular chromosome without histones

e or p
prokaryotic cell
sterols generally present in cell membrane

e or p
eukaryotic cell
cell wall almost always contains peptidoglycans

e or p
prokaryotic cell
nucleus bounded by a membrane

e or p
eukaryotic cell
arrangement of flagella distributed over the entire cell
a single flagellum at each end of the cell
a widening at the base of the flagellar filament
an enzyme affecting gram-positive cell walls; found in tears
a compound found in bacterial endospores
dipicolinic acid
a compound frequently found in the cell walls of yeasts
no flagella
highly resistant bodies formed by a few bacterial species
small circular DNA molecules that are not connected with the main chromosome
the semifluid center portion of the mitochondrion
a substance similar to peptidoglycan that is found in the cell wall of archaea
bacteria with irregular morphology
adapted to high concentrations, which are required for growth
extreme halophiles
the general term used for organisms capable of growth at 0*C
capable of growth at high temperatures; optimum 50*C to 60*C
used in media to neutralize acids
a phenomenon that occurs when bacteria are placed in high salt concentrations
term used in text for organisms that grow well at refrigerator temperatures; optimum growth is at temperatures of 20-30*C
microbes that grow better at high C02 concentrations
members of the archaea with an optimum growth temperature of 80*C or higher
considered a synonym for psychrotroph by some microbiologists
facultative psychrophile
isolation method for getting pure cultures; uses an inoculating loop to trace a pattern of inoculum on a solid medium
streak plate
a device for maintaining bacteria in a logarithmic growth phase
used to increase the numbers of a small minority of microorganisms in a mixed culture to arrive at a detectable level of microorganisms
enrichment culture
preservation method that uses quick-freezing and a high vacuum
accumulations of microbes large enough to see without a microscope
microbes added to initiate growth
new cell numbers balanced by death of cells
stationary phase
no cell division, but intense metabolic activity
lag phase
a logarithmic plot of the population produces an ascending straight line
log phase
used to grow obligate anaerobes
reducing media
designed to suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and to encourage growth of desired microbes
selective media
generally contain ingredients such as sodium thioglycolate that chemically combine with dissolved oxygen
reducing media
nutrient are digests or extracts; exact chemical composition varies slightly from batch to batch
complex media
what conditions that are characteristics of the food tend to retard spoilage in grape jelly
fruit jelly is acidic and also has a relatively high osmotic pressure from added sugars
what conditions that are characteristics of the food tend to retard spoilage in pickles
are acidic
what conditions that are characteristics of the food tend to retard spoilage in salted fish
high osmotic pressures
what conditions that are characteristics of the food tend to retard spoilage in cheddar cheese
acidic and have relatively low moisture
what kinds of microorganisms would be most likely to cause spoilage of each of the foods?
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of plate counts for milk intended for commercial sale
perishable and the delay required for incubation of plates would often be too lengthy for practical use
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of plate counts for molds
filamentous and plate counts would often arise from mold spores or fragments of mold filaents, which would not indicate the mold growth very well
obligate aerobe: where in the tube does growth occur and why
near top of medium
dissovled 02 diffused only a short distance in the medium
facultative anaerobe: where in the tube does growth occur and why
best near surface, but throughout tube

can survive without, but grows best with
obligate anaerobe: where in the tube does growth occur and why
at bottom
02 kills them
aerotolerant anaerobe: where in the tube does growth occur and why
evenly throughout tube
doesn't use 02
microaerophile: where in the tube does growth occur and why
in a narrow bend of the medium

they will grow at the depth having the optimum oxygen concentration
agar is a ________ derived from a marine alga
a few bacteria and the photo synthesizing ________ are able to use gaseous nitrogen directly from the atmosphere
______ are the most common microbe; their optimum temperatures are 25*C to 40*C
osmotic effects are roughly related to the ________ of molecules in a given volume of solution
a complex medium in liquid form is called a nutrient
for preservation by _______, a pure culture of microbes is placed in a suspending liquid and quick-frozen at -50*C to -95*C
bacteria usually reproduce by
binary fission
turbidity is recorded in a spectrophotometer as ______
absorbance/optical density
the growth of filamentous organisms such as fungi is often best recorded by means of
dry weight measurement
_______ anaerobes grow more efficiently aerobically than they do anaerobically
______ halophiles do not require high salt concentrations; but they are able to grow at salt concentrations that may inhibit the growth of many other bacteria
examples of buffers are ____ , ____, and ____ found in complex media are also buffers
salts, peptones, amino acids
any nutrient material prepared for growth of bacteria in a laboratory is called a
culture medium
agar melts at about the boiling point of water but remains liquid until the temperature drops to about
dilutions of a bacterial mixture are poured into a Petri dish and mixed with melted agar. ths plate-counting methos is called the
pour plate method
partially digested protein products used in complex media are called
in order to grow obligate intracellular parasites such as rickettsias and chlamydias, it is usually necessary to provide
living host cells
the general term for tests that estimate microbial growth by the time required for them to deplete oxygen in the medium is _______
reduction tests
an enzyme acting upon hydrogen peroxide
rhizobium bacteria do this in symbiosis with leguminous plants
nitrogen fixation
requires atmospheric oxygen to grow
obligate aerobe
requires atmospheric oxygen, but in lower than normal concentrations
does not use oxygen, but grows readily in its presence
aerotolerant anaerobe
does not use oxygen and usually finds it toxic
obligate anaerobe
important source of energy, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur requirements in complex media
breaks down hydrogen peroxide without generation of oxygen
formed in cytoplasm by ionizing radiation
hydroxyl radical
an enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water
the toxic form of oxygen neutralized by superoxide dismutase
superoxide free radicals
a component added to some culture media that makes the Petri plate into a self-contained anaerobic chamber
extracellular polymeric substances on some bacterial cells; may help cells adhere to surfaces
bacterial cell with thin peptidoglycan layer, outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide
protein that forms fimbriae
bundles of microtubules that probably play a role in cell division of eukaryotic cells
bacteria that have lost their cell walls and may latr spontaneously regain them
chemically, the capsule is a ________, a polypeptide, or both
capsules protect pathogenic bacteria from _________, a process by which protective host cells engult and destroy miroorganisms
contain pigments for photoynthesis by bactera; found in the plasma membrane
gram-negative bacterial cells after their treatment with lysozyme
specialized external structures that assist in the transfer of genetic material between cells
sex pili
numerous short, hairlike appendages that help in attachment to mucous membranes
general term for substances surrounding bacterial cells
polysaccharides found in the cell wall of many gram-positive bacteria
teichoic acids
inclusions of iron oxide
metachromatic granules of stored phosphate in prokaryotes
entrance of fluids and dissolved substances into eukaryotic cells
membrane-encolsed spheres in phagocytic cells that contain powerful digestive enzymes
the "powerhouses" of the cell
a gel-like fluid found in the eukaryotic nucleus
a folded inner membrane found in mitochondria
sometimes contributes to movment of a cell
cytoplasmic streaming
found in walls of acid-fast bacteria
mycolic acid
adheres best to bacteria, which have a negative charge, because the color molecule has a positive charge
basic dyes
used in diagnosis of tuberculosis
acid-fast stain
involves the use of a negative stain made from India ink particles
capsule stain
Shaeffer-Fulton stain
endospore stain
uses carbolfuchsin dye
acid-fast stain
uses malachite green
endospore stain
reflects a basic difference between microbial cell walls; ehtanol will not remove stain from bacteria
gram stain