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7 Cards in this Set

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Give a clinical application of genomics.
It was used to track the West Nile Virus.
Why is the base pairing in DNA important?
It always occurs in a specific way (A-T, C-G), thus the base sequence of one DNA strand determines the base sequence of the other strand.
Describe DNA replication, including the functions of DNA gyrase, DNA ligase, and DNA polymerase.
Figure 8.3
Gyrase: relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork
Ligase: Makes covalent bonds to join DNA strands; joins Okazaki fragments and new segments in excision repair
Polymerase: Synthesizes DNA; Proofreads and repairs DNA
What is the role of the promoter, terminator, and mRNA in transcription?
Promoter: Site of DNA where where RNA polymerase binds to begin transcription of RNA
Terminator: site of DNA where RNA synthesis ends
mRNA: carries the coded information for making specific pproteins from DNA to ribosomes
How does mRNA production in eukaryotes differ from the process in prokaryotes?
Prokaryote: translation of mRNA into protein can begin even before transcription is complete; mRNA produced in cytoplasm (thus, start codons are available to ribosomes before the entire mRNA molecule is made)
Eukaryotes: transcription occurs in the nucleus; mRNA is moved through the nuclear membrane to the cytoplasm; RNA undergoes processing before it leaves the nucleus; Regions coding for proteins can be interrupted by non-coding DNA (exons and introns), snRNPs remove the introns and splice the exons together for RNA transcription.
Operon
A set of operator and promoter sites and the structural genes they control.
What is the role of cAMP in catabolite repression?
cAMP is a cellular alarm signal. When glucose is available the level of cAMP is low, thus CAP does not bind, inhibiting the metabolism of alternative carbon sources.