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5 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Genetic recombination and mutation create new viruses
Genetic recombination between viruses

Viral mutations
Environment and social conditions can produce new viruses
Jump species

Increasing deforestation

Agricultural practices

Increasing animal populations
Influenza; the ‘flu’
Has additional structural proteins called matrix proteins and spikes
2 types of antigenic spikes: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N)

3 types of influenza virus: A, B, C

Antigenic variation of H and N lead to new strains (drift or shift)

Transmitted by coughing and sneezing; contaminated objects

Incubation period is 24 hours; fever and chills, fatigue, headache, severe cough, sneezing, body aches and pain, nasal congestion, dry throat, tightchest and back

Disease is self-limiting and resolves in 7-10 days
Rhinovirus; common ‘head’ cold

101 known types

Transmitted by aerosol or direct contact

Attaches to respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity;
does not replicate well at body temp (37˚)

Symptoms are nasal discharge, nasal congestion, sneezing, and throat irritation

Children develop croup - cough/breathing difficulties

Resolves after 1-2 weeks; ear and sinus infection(sinusitis) common complications, triggers asthma

Antihistamines can be used for temporary relief of symptoms

No vaccine; Anti-viral Kleenex
Adenovirus, the ‘common cold’
stable to chemical or physical agents and adverse pH conditions, allowing for prolonged survival outside of the body

Transmitted by direct contact, respiratory secretions

Upper respiratory pathogen; causes sore throat, high fever, cough, sometimes lymph nodes swelling

Other diseases;conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, rash illness, acute respiratory disease

Can also set-up chronic, asymptomatic infection of tissues

No viral-specific therapy; vaccine for certain subtypes