• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/52

Click to flip

52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pathology
The scientific study of disease; 3 objectives: Pathogenesis, etiology, structural/functional changes caused on the body
Pathogenesis
The development of disease
Etiology
The study of the cause of a disease
Infection
Colonization of the body by pathogens
Disease
result of an infection, change from healthy state
Normal microbiota
permanently colonize the host
Transient microbiota
may be present for days, weeks, or months
Symbiosis
The relationship between normal microbiota and the host, one is dependent on the other
Microbial antagonism (competitive exclusion)
Normal microbiota prevent the overgrowth of harmful microorganisms
commensalism
one organism benefits, and the other is unaffected corynebacteria- surface of eye
mutualism
both organisms benefit, E coli- synthesis of vit. K
parasitism
one organism benefits at the expense of the other- Taenia saginata
Probiotics
Live microbial cultures applied to or ingested that are intended to exert a beneficial effect
opportunistic pathogens
Do not cause disease in their normal habitat in a healthy person but may do so in a different environment (e. coli)
Normal microbiota protect the host by
Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
Producing acids
Producing bacteriocins
Prebiotics
chemicals that promote growth of beneficial bacteria
Koch’s Postulates
The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
The pathogen must be isolated from the diseases host and grown in pure culture
The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal
The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism
Koch’s Postulates Exceptions
Some pathogens can cause several disease conditions
Some pathogens cause disease only in humans
Microbes have unique culture requirements
Symptom
A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease
Sign
A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
Syndrome
A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
Communicable disease
A disease that is spread from one host to another
Contagious disease
A disease that is easily spread from one host to another
Noncommunicable disease
A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
Incidence
Measurement of fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time.
Prevalence
Measurement of fraction of a population that have a specific disease at a given time.
Sporadic disease
Disease that occurs occasionally in a population
Endemic disease
Disease constantly present in a population: common cold
Epidemic disease
Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time: influenza
Pandemic disease
Worldwide epidemic: flu, AIDS
Herd immunity
Many immune persons in a community; vaccinations can protect individuals to halt the spread of disease.
Acute disease
Symptoms develop rapidly (flu)
Chronic disease
Disease develops slowly (mono)
Subacute disease
Symptoms between acute and chronic
Latent disease
Disease with a period of no symptoms, when the causative agent is inactive
Local infection
Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
Systemic infection
An infection throughout the body
Focal infection
Systemic infection that began as a local infection
Sepsis
Toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection
Bacteremia
presence of bacteria in the blood
Septicemia
blood poisoning, growth & multiplication of bacteria in the blood, an example sepsis
Toxemia
Toxins in the blood (tetanus)
Viremia
Viruses in the blood
Primary infection
Acute infection that causes the initial illness
Secondary infection
Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
Subclinical disease
No noticeable signs or symptoms, illness (inapparent infection) Poliovirus & hepatitis A virus- carried by people who never develop the disease
predisposing factor
makes body more susceptible to a disease and may alter the course of the disease
Incubation period
interval between initial infection and first appearance of signs or symptoms
Prodromal period
short period following incubation, mild symptoms
Period of illness
Disease most severe, overt signs and symptoms
Period of Decline
signs and symptoms subside
Period of Convalescence
Person regains strength and the body returns to its prediseased state