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76 Cards in this Set

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What is microbiology?
The study of small life such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and protozoa.
What are bacteria?
Single cell prokaryotes widely distributed in environment; a very small percent cause human disease.
What are viruses?
nucleic acids surrounded by proteins; infects a living cell and uses the cell's equipment to replicate. Dangerous to human cells.
What is algae?
single or multi cell eukaryotes; make their own food and are found in a lot of water environments.
What are fungi?
single or multicell eukaryotes; decompose dead organisms; found in soil and water environments.
What are the main producers of antibiotics?
Fungi
What is protozoa?
single cell eukaryotes; eat algae or other smaller microbes for food and are foind in water environments.
Who invented the microscope?
Anton van Leerwenhoek in 1670
What is spontaneous generation?
living things could arise from nonliving things.
What is the germ theory of disease?
microbe invades larger organism and causes disease.
Who was Edward Jenner?
used cowpox to immunize and protect against small pox.
Who is Louis Pasteur?
He was instrumental in disproving spontaneous generation. He invented the swan-neck flask.
Who is Robert Koch?
He found a way to grow bacteria in "pure culture". Found that one organism can cause one disease.
What are aseptic techniques?
techniques that eliminate or cut down the number of contaminated microbes.
What invented penicillin?
Alexander Fleming
What are organic compounds?
carbon based molecules
What is oxidation?
Removing electrons and adding oxygen
What is a reduction reaction?
adding electrons;electrons have energy
Describe carbs.
sugars;main energy for microbes; polar-interact well with water
Describe lipids.
most common is fat; nonpolar
Describe proteins.
polymer of amino acids; joined by peptide bonds; are enzymes and provide structural stability, receptors, and transport
Describe nucleic acids.
long polymer of nucleotides that contains genetic info for the microbe; dna and/or rna
List characteristics of prokaryotes.
-single cell
-all are bacteria
-no membrane bound organelles
-cell wall made of peptpglycagon
-binary fission
-asexual reproduction
List characteristics of eukaryotes.
-multicellular
-mitochondria, nucleus, ER
-no cell wall in animals
-cell wall in plants
-mitosis/meiosis
-genetic info in nucleus
-sexual or asexual
What do eukaryotes and prokaryotes have in common?
-Genetic info in form of DNA
-cytoplasm
-cell membrane
-major metabolic processes will be similar.
What is the cell wall?
semirigid layer made of peptidoglycan that lies outside of cell membrane. Maintains cell shape, prevents the cell from bursting.
Outer Membrane
Decides what comes in and out of the cell bilayer membrane outside of cell wall; attached to cell wall.
Periplasmic space
gap between cell membrane and cell wall; large; assembling cell wall and metabolic activity.
cell membrane
controls entry/exit of substances into the cells
Passive Transport
substances move from high to low concentrations. no energy needed
facilitated diffusion
carrier proteins in the membrane "assist" the substance across the membrane.
osmosis
diffusion of water from high to low water concentration.
tonicity
behavior of cells in a fluid environment
isotonic solution
water concentration same on both sides of membranes. water moves in/out at same rate.
hypertonic solution
water concentration greater inside the cell;shrivels and dies
hypotonic solution
water concentration greater outside cell; swells and bursts
active transport
ATP is used to transport substances against the concentration gradient (low to high). Essential for any bacteria to survive. requires membrane proteins.
cytoplasm
semifluid substance inside the cell membrane; many reactions occur here.
ribosomes
site of protein synthesis; made of protein and RNA
nuclear region
mostly dna, rna, and protein
endospore
resting stage of certain bacteria that contains low water levels and are resistant to treating, dying, change in pH, disinfectants, and radiation
flagella
long and thin helical appendages that propel bacteria through liquid medium
chemotaxis
motion helps bacteria move towards attractants and away from repellents
pili
short, hollow projections on surface of bacteria; not involved in movement
conjugation pili
transfers genes
attachment pili
help baceria stick to surfaces
casule
protective polysaccharide coating outside of cell wall
enzymes
proteins that speed up chemical reactions; can be used over and over again.
chemoheterotrophs
getting energy from ready-made organic compounds
Lag
1st level; no division; replication of DNA, macromolecule synthesis; lots of ATP!
Log
2nd phase; bacteria divided at most rapid rate
Stationary
new cells are being made at the same rate as old ones are dying
Death
last phase, no cell division, cells are dying; exponential drop in number of cells
acidophiles
pH 0.1-5.4
neutrophiles
pH 5.4-8
alkaliphiles
pH 7-11.5
obligate _____
must grow at elevated pH
facilitated ______
prefers to grow at hight pH but can grow at low pH
psychrophiles
15-20 degrees C
mesophiles
grow best at 25-40 degrees C; most disease causes organisms
thermophiles
50-60 degrees C
obligate aerobe
must have oxygen for cellular respiration
obligate anaerobe
cannot tolerate oxygen; oxygen converted reactive is not good for this organism!
microaerophiles
grow best at low oxygen concentration
facultative aerobe/anaerobe
prefer to use oxygen for respiration but can grow anaerobically.
aerotolerant anaerobes
can tolerate oxygen but don't use it in their metabolism
osmotic pressure
most bacteria can tolerate large variations of dissolved substances. (because of cell wall)
halophiles
bacteria that require moderate-high levels of salt
extremophiles
microbes that thrive under extreme conditions; not associated with human disease.
Why is carbon important?
synthesis of all macromolecules, energy
Why is nitrogen important?
make proteins, nucleic acids
Why is phosphorous important?
ATP, proteins, nucleic acids, cell membranes
Chemoheterotrophs
getting energy from ready made organic compounds
Glycolysist
breakdown glucose to pyruvate, no oxygen needed
Kreb's Cycle
completely oxidize pyruvate to CO2
fermentation
pyruvate and converts H into products; no energy needed