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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are eukaryotic cells?
cells with a nucleus and organelles compartmentalized by membranes
Is protozoa unicellular, multicellular or both?
always unicellular
Is fungi and algae unicellular, multicellular or both?
may be unicellular or multicellular
Are helminths unicellular, multicellular or both?
always multicellular
What is endosymbosis?
Theory of evolution that eukaryotes developed from prokaryotes that engulfed other prokaryotes. The engulfed prokaryotes then became organelles.
What organelles are present in eukaryotic microbial cells?
cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, cytoskeleton, and glycocalyx

some have cell wall and locomotor appendages
what are the two types of locomotor appendages?
cilia and flagella - allow movement
How are eukaryotic flagella different from prokaryotes?
eukaryotic flagellum is thicker, structurally more complex, and covered by an extension of the cell membrane
Describe flagellum.
long, sheathed cylinder containing regularly spaced hollow tubules (microtubules) that exted along the entire length
What is the typical arrangement of microtubules on flagella and cilia?
9+2 - 9 microtubules surrounding a single central pair
What are the differences between cilia and flagella?
Cilia are shorter and more numerous
What type of cells are cilia found?
found on only one group of protozoa and certain animal cells
What is a glycocalyx?
an outermost boundary that comes into direct contact with the environment
What is the glycocalyx composed of?
polysaccharides
What does the glycocalyx appear as?
appears as a network of fibers, slime layer, or capsule
What is the function of the glycocalyx?
contributes to protection, adherence of cells to surfaces, and reception of signals from other cells and from the environment
What is the layer beneath the glycocalyx?
Varies, fungi & algae have thick rigid cell wall, protozoa, a few algae and animal cells have no cell wall only a cell membrane
Describe the cell wall in eukaryotic microbes.
Have a thick inner layer or polysaccharide fibers composed of chitin or cellulose and a think outer layer of mixed glycans
What does the cytoplasmic (cell) membrane of eukaryotes contain that prokaryotes does not?
sterol
What are cytoplasmic (cell) membranes of eukaryotic microbes composed of?
a bilayer of phospholipids in which protein molecules are embedded

also contain sterol which adds rigidity to cell membrane
What is the nucleus?
the compact sphere that is the most prominent organelle of the eukaryotic cell; contains instructions in the form of DNA
Where is dna organized into chromosomes?
the nucleus
What separates the cell cytoplasm from the nucleus?
the nuclear envelope
What is the nuclear envelope composed of?
two parallel membranes separated by a narrow space; it is perforated with small, regularly spaced openings or pores, formed at sites where the two membranes unite
What is the function of the nuclear pores?
passageways for macromolecules
What is the nucleolus
a granular mass within the nucleus; stains more intensely because of RNA content; site for ribosomal RNA synthesis and a collection area for ribosomal subunits
Describe nucleoplasm
matrix within the nucleus, contains a network of dark fibers known as chromatin
What is chromatin
network of dark fibers, comprises eukaryotic chromosomes
What is endoplasmic reticulum (ER)?
microscopic series of tunnels used in transport and storage.
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?
rough endoplasmic reticulum RER and smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER
Why does the rough endoplasmic reticulum appear rough?
large number of ribosomes attached to its membrane surface
What is the Golgi apparatus?
site in the cell in which proteins are modified and then sent to their final destination
What does the Golgi apparatus consist of?
a stack of several flattened, disc-shaped sacs called cisternae
____________ have outer limiting membranes and cavities like those of the endoplasmic reticulum, but they do not form a continuous network
cisternae of the Golgi apparatus
The Gogli appratus is closely associated with _____________ both in its location and function.
endoplasmic reticulum
____________ are picked up by the forming face of the Golgi apparatus.
transitional vessicles
The final action of the Golgi apparatus is to pinch off finished ____________ that will be conveyed to the organelles.
condensing vessicles
What is a lysosome?
a type of vesicle originating from the Gogli apparatus that contains a variety of enzymes involved in digestion of food particles and protection against invading microorganisms
What is a vacuole?
membrane-bound sacs containing fluids or solid particles to be digested, excreted, or stored
What organelle is responsible for supplying energy to the cell?
mitochondria
Describe the appearance of mitochondria
round or elongated particles scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Smooth, continuous outer membrane that forms the external contour, and an inner folded membrane nested neatly within
What are the folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria called?
cristae - may be tubular or folded into shelflike bands
What are chloroplasts?
organelles found in algae and plant cells that convert energy of sunlight into chemical energy (photosythesis)
What do chlorplasts resemble?
Resemble mitochondria, but are larger, contain special pigments, and are much more varied in shape
____________ are the small, disclike sacs of the folded inner membrane of chloroplasts
thylakoids
What are thylakoids stacked upon one another into?
grana
What is stroma?
a ground substance that surrounds the thylakoids
What are ribosomes function?
protein synthesis
What do ribosomes look like under electron microscope?
numerous, tiny particles that give a dotted appearance to the cytoplasm
Where are ribosomes distributed?
freely in the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton; also on rough endoplasmic reticulum
What is the cytoskeleton?
flexible framework of molecules that criss-cross the cell
What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
anchoring organelles
moving RNA and vesicles
permitting shape changes and movement in some cells
What are the two main types of cytoskeletal elements?
microfilaments and microtubules
What are microfilaments?
thin protein strands that attach to the cell membrane and form a network through the cytoplasm

(some responsible for movement of the cytoplasm)
What are microtubules?
long, hollow tubes that maintain the shape of eukaryotic cells without walls and transport substances from one part of a cell to another
What is another name for the Kingdom Fungi?
Myceteae
What are the two main groups of fungi
macroscopic fungi and microscopic fungi
What fungi are macroscopic?
mushrooms, puffpalls, gill fungi
What fungi are microscopic?
molds and yeasts
What are the basic morphological types of fungi?
yeasts and hyphae
How is a yeast cell distinguished?
oval shape and its mode of asexual reproduction
How does a yeast cell reproduce?
it grows swelling on its surface called buds which then become separate cells
What are hypahe
long, threadlike cells found in the bodies of filmentous fungi or molds
What are psuedohypha?
chain of yeasts formed when buds remain attached in rows
What is dimorphic?
can take either form
Fungi are __________ and acquire their nutrients from organic material called ____________.
heterotrophic, substrates
Most fungi are _________, meaning they obtain these substrates from the remnants of dead plants and animals in soil or acquatic habitats.
saprobes
Fungi can also be ______ on the bodies of living animals or plants.
parasites
Fungus can be plant ________ and toxins may cause ________ in humans.
pathogen, disease
The woven, interwining mass of hyphae that makes up the body or colony of mold is called a __________.
mycelium
Most fungi, the hyphae are divided into segments by cross walls or ___________.
septa
___________ can be solid partitions with no communication, or partial walls with small pores
septa
What are fungal reproductive bodies called?
spores
Fungals spores are responsible for _____________.
survival, producing genetic variation, and dissemination
The most general subdivision of fungi is by the way spores arise. ___________ and _____________
asexual, sexual
What are the two subtypes of asexual spore
sporangiospores and condiospores (conidia)
How are sporangiospores formed?
by successive cleavages within a saclike head called a sporangium, whith is attached to a stalk, the sporangiophore.

Spores are initially enclosed but released when the sporangium ruptures
What are condiospores?
free spores not enclosed by a spore-bearing sac

Develop by pinching off of the tip of a special fertile hypha or by the segmentation of a preexisting vegetative hypha
What is the function of sexual spore formation?
variation in genetic makeup, two spores share genetic makeup
How are fungus identified?
by asexual spore-formation, hyphal type, conlony texture and pigmentation, physiological characteristics, and genetic makeup
What are mycoses?
fungal infections
What makeup the Kingdom Protista?
algae and protozoa
Protists are__________
any unicellular or colonial organism that lack true tissue
_______ occur in unicellular, colonial, and filamentous forms, and the larger forms can possess tissues and simple organs
algae
algae is not usually infectious, but can cause ____________
food poisoning caused by toxins of certain marine algae
Most protozon cells are _______ cells containing the major eukaryortic organelles except _______.
single, chloroplasts
the cytoplasm is usually divided into a clear outer layer called _______ and a granular inner region called _______
ectoplasm, endoplasm
Protozoa lack a _________
cell wall
Protozoa are _________ and usually require their food in a complex organic form.
heterotrophic
protozoa move by means of
pseudopods, flagella, or cilia;
some have both pseudopods and flagella
Describe pseudopods
blunt, branched, or long and pointed
what is a trophozoite?
motile feeding stage of protozoa, requires ample food and moisture to remain active
what is a cyst?
resting stage of protozoa
How do protozoa reproduce?
simple, asexual reproduction - usually mitosis, some reproduce within a host cell by multiple fission

sexual reproduction can also occur
Ciliates participate in _________, a form of genetic exchange in which members of two different mating types fuse temporarily and exchange micronucleui
conjugation
We use a simple system of ______ groups, based on ________________ to group protozoa.
four; method of motility, mode of reproduction, and stages in life cycle
What are the four main groups of protozoa
mastigophora (flagellated)
sarcodina (amoebas)
ciliophora (ciliated)
ampicomplexa (sporozoa)
Describe the group of protozoas - Mastigophora
Primary movement - flagella or flagella & amoeboid motion
Reproduction - sexual by syngamy, division by longitudinal fission
Describe the group of protozoas - Sarcodina (Amoebas)
Primary movement - psuedopods, some have flagella in reproductive states
Reproduction - asexual by fission, two groups have external shell, mostly uninucleate; usually encyst
Describe the group of protozoas - Ciliophora
Primary movement - cilia
Repoduction - divisionby transverse fission

usually non infectios
Describe the group of protozoas - Apicomplexa (Sporozoa)
Primary movement - absent except in male gamets
Repoduction - Sexual and asexual; produce sporelike cells called sporozoites following sexual repoduction

infections
Helminths include ___________.
tapeworms, flukes, and roundwords
Why are helminths included in microbiology?
Because microscope is needed to see eggs and larvae
roundworms are also called
nematodes
Describe flatworms
very thin, often segmented body plan
Describe roundworms
elongate, cylindrical, unsegmented body
What are the subgroups of flatworms?
cestodes or tapeworms (long, ribbonlike) and trematodes or flukes (flat, ovoid)
The complete life cycle of helminths includes ___________
fertilized egg (embryo), larval, and adult stage
____________ the sexes are separate and usually difference in appearance; in ____________ the sexes can be either separate or hermaphroditic
nemotodes, trematodes
How are helminths classified?
according to their shape; their size; the degree of development of various organs; the presense of hooks suckers, or other special structures; the mode of reproduction; the kind of hosts; and the appearance of eggs and larvae