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26 Cards in this Set

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Why do microbiologists study parasitic worms?
Lab techs diagnose infections of parasitic worms by finding microscopic eggs and immature stages in blood, fecal, urine, and lymph specimens.
Who developed the taxonomic system?
Carolus Linnaeus.
Who first discovered the bacterial world?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
What is abiogenesis?
Spontaneous generation, or the generation of living things from nonliving things.
Describe Francesco Redi's experiment.
He demonstrated by a series of experiments that when decaying meat was kept isolated from flies, maggots never developed, while meat exposed to flies was soon infested.
Describe John T. Needham's experiment.
He boiled beef gravy and infusions of plant materials in vials and sealed them. Days later he observed microscopic life forms in them and deduced there must be some "life force" because he heated the vials sufficiently to kill everything.
Describe Lazzaro Spallazani's experiment and conclusions.
Similar to Needham's experiment, Spallazani melted his tubes shut. He deduced three things: 1. Neeham either failed to heat his vials sufficiently or had not sealed them tightly enough. 2. Microorganisms exist in the air and can contaminate experiments. 3. Spontaneous generation of microorganisms does not occur; all living things arise from other living things.
First step of the scientific method.
A group of observations leads a scientist to ask a question about some phenomenon.
Second step of the scientific method.
The scientist generates a hypothesis- that is, a potential answer to the question posed in step one.
Third step of the scientific method.
The scientist designs and conducts an experiment to test the hypothesis.
Fourth step of the scientific method.
Based on the observed results of the experiment, the scientist either accepts, rejects, or modifies the hypothesis.
First step of Koch's postulates.
The suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts.
Second step of Koch's postulates.
The agent must be isolated and grown outside the host.
Third step of Koch's postulates.
When the agent is introduced to a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease.
The fourth step of Koch's postulates.
The same agent must be reisolated from the diseased experimental host.
Which of the following microorganisms are not eukaryotic?
a. bacteria
b. yeasts
c. molds
d. protozoa
a. bacteria
Which microorganisms are used to make microbiological growth media?
a. bacteria
b. fungi
c. algae
d. protozoa
c. fungi
In which habitat would you most likely find archaea?
a. acidic hot springs
b. swamp mud
c. Great Salt Lake
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Of the following scientists, who first promulgated the theory of abiogenesis?
a. Aristotle
b. Pasteur
c. Needham
d. Spallanzani
a. Aristotle
Which of the following scientists hypothesized that a bacterial colony arises from a single bacterial cell?
a. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
b. Louis Pasteur
c. Robert Koch
d. Richard Petri
c. Robert Koch
Which scientist first hypothesized that medical personnel can infect patients with pathogens?
a. Edward Jenner
b. Joseph Lister
c. John Snow
d. Ignaz Semmelweis
d. Ignaz Semmelweis
Leewenhoek described microorganisms as
a. animacules
b. prokaryotes
c. eukaryotes
d. protozoa
a. animacules
Which of the following favored the theory of spontaneous generation?
a. Spallanzani
b. Needham
c. Pasteur
d. Koch
b. Needham
A scientist who studies the role of microorganisms in the environment is
a. a genetic technologist
b. an earth microbiologist
c. an epidemiologist
d. an environmental microbiologist
d. an environmental microbiologist
The laboratory of Robert Koch contributed which of the following to the field of microbiology?
a. simple staining technique
b. use of Petri dishes
c. first photomicrograph of bacteria
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Scientist(s) related to environmental microbiology.
Martinus Beijerink and Sergie Winogradsky