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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
macromolecules are made of???
enzymes+ATP+monomers
three important electron carriers
NAD+ => NADH
NADP+ => NADPH
FAD => FADH2
three ways cells phosphorylate ADP to ATP
substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, photophosphorylation
types of enzymes! (6)
Hydrolases: perform hydrolysis of polymers
Isomerases: rearrange atoms in a molecule
Ligases or polymerases: join molexules
Lyases: split molecules w/out adding water
Oxidoreducatses: remove or add electrons
Transferases: transfer functional groups
enzyme parts
apoenzymes (protein part)+ cofactors (inorganic ions or organic molecules called coenzymes)= holoenzyme (active)
3 types of inhibitors
competitive inhibitors
noncompetitive inhibitors
feedback (negative) inhibitors
noncompetitve inhibitors types
allosteric inhibition: changes shape of enzyme by binding at allosteric site
allosteric activation: makes enzyme into the right shape by binding to the allosteric site
glycolosys ins and outs!
net gain of 2 ATP molecules, 2 molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
lysis stage of glycolysis
when fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is split into two three carbon pieces (DHAP and G3P)
ins and outs of fermentation!
1 NAD+ from NADH (pyruvic acid to lactic acid)
1 NAD+ from NADH and loss of CO2 (pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde to ethanol)
intermediate steps ins and outs!
results in two molecules acetly CoA, two molecules CO2, two molecules NADH (from two molecules of pyruvic acid)
where does krebs cycle occur?
cytosol of prokaryotes and marix of mitchondria in eukarotes
ins and outs of Krebs cycle
actetyl-CoA (x2) and produces: one molecule GTP, one molecule FADH2, three molecules of NADH, two molecules CO2 (x2)
where does electron transport occur?
mitochondria cristae of eukaryotes and in cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes
four categories of carrier molecules
flavoproteins, ubiquinones, metal-containing (iron-sulfur) proteins, cytochromes
Ins and outs of Electron Transport Chain!
out: NAD+, FAD+, H2O, ultimately ATP through pump
maintating electrochemical gradient by keeping one or more chemicals in higher concentration on one side?
chemiosmosis- proton motive force made in ETC
what type of phosphorylation occurs in ETC?
oxidative phosphorylation
how many molecules of ATP are formed from one molecule of flucose in most eukaryotic cells?
36 (actual yield closer to 31)
metabolic poisons (4)
cyanide and azide binf Fe of cytochromes and prevent its reduction; carbon monoxide binds cytochrome oxidase and stops its function; antimycin A stops e- flow between cytochromes b and c
uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
dinitropheno, dicumarol, salicylanilide- don't affect e- flow but inhibit ATP synthesis by dissipating the proton gradient- produces heat
lipid catabolism
requires 1 ATP to separate glycerol and fatty acids- produces 1 FADH2 and 1 NADH to go to ETC and an acetyl-CoA to go to Krebs cycle per two carbons of fatty acid chain
krebs cycle ATP equivalents starting with acetyl Co-A
12
krebs cycle equivalents starting with pyruvate
15
net ATP equivalents are produces from complete oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose, substrate-level phosphorylation only
4
lyphophilization
freeze, drying (uses sublimation)