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31 Cards in this Set

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Peptidoglycan function
-Gives rigid support
-Protects against osmotic pressure
Peptidoglycan chemical composition:
Sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains
What type of bacteria have cell walls or cell membranes? What is their function?
Gram positive - they give the major surface antigen
What is the chemical composition of the cell wall/cell membrane in gram positives?
Teichoic acid
What does teichoic acid induce?
IL-1 and TNF
What is the function of the outer membrane in gram negatives?
Serves as the major surface antigen and site of endotoxin
What is endotoxin?
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
What is the chemical composition of LPS?
-Lipid A
-Polysaccharide
What is the function of Lipid A?
Induces TNF and IL1
What is the function of Polysaccharide?
To be the antigen
What is the function of the plasma membrane in bacteria?
It is the site of oxidative and transport enzymes.
What is the chemical composition of the plasma membrane?
Lipoprotein bilayer
What is the function of ribosomes in bacteria?
Protein synthesis
What is the chemical composition of ribosomes?
50S and 30S subunits
What is the function of periplasm in bacteria?
It is the space between the cytoplasmic membrane and outermembrane in gram negatives
What is the chemical composition of the periplasm in gram negs?
It contains many hydrolytic enzymes including beta lactamases
What is the function of the capsule on bacteria?
It protects against phagocytosis
What is the chemical composition of the capsule of bacteria?
Polysaccharide
What bacteria does not have a capsule made of polysaccharide and what is it made of instead?
Bacillus anthracis - D-glutamate
What is the function of a Pilus/fimbria on bacteria?
It mediates adherence of bacteria to the cell surface; Sex pilus forms an attachment btwn 2 bacteria during conjugation
What is the pilus/fimbria made of?
Glycoprotein
What is the function of a flagellum on bacteria?
motility
What is a flagellum made of?
Protein
What is the function of a spore for bacteria?
Provides resistance to dehydration, heat, and chemicals.
What is a spore made of?
A keratin-like coat of dipicolinic acid
What is the function of a plasmid?
It contains a variety of genes for antibiotic resistance, enzymes, and toxins.
What is the plasmid made of?
DNA
What is the function of the glycocalyx in bacteria?
It mediates adherence to surfaces, especially foreign surfaces.
What is the glycocalyx made of?
Polysaccharide
What is the function of IgA proteases in bacteria?
It allows some organisms to colonize mucosal surfaces
What are 4 bacteria that have IgA Proteases?
-S. pneumoniae
-N. meningitidis
-N. gonorrhoeae
-H. influenzae