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101 Cards in this Set

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Painful genital lesion with erythematous base that becomes ulucerated, and inguinal adenopathy.
Haemophilus ducreyi
on an asian immigrant
Haemophilus ducryii
Morphology
gram negative rod in parallel short chains (school of fish)
school of fish
Causitive agent of lymphogranuloma venereum
chlamydia trachomatis
(note lesion is not painful)
number one bacterial STD
iodine-staining intracellular inclusion bodies
chlamydia trachomatis
causative agent of lymphogranuloma venereum
Dermacentor ticks are the vector for these (2) bugs.
Rickettsia rickettsii and Francisella tularensis.
one causes RMSF and the other comes from rabbits.
Autopsy shows wrinkling of the intimal lining of the aorta as well as aortic root dilation.
Obliterative endarteritis of the vasa vasorum seen in tertiary syphilis.
How does strep pneumo mediate its attachment to respiratory mucosa?
IgA protease
and also because it has techoic acid in its envelope
Name this bug:
Catalase (-), alpha hemolytic, optochin sensitive, bile soluble, capsule (+)
strep pneumo
Which bug produces M protein, streptokinase, DNase, and hyaluronidase?
Strep pyogenes
Which group of streptococci posess an M protein?
Group A
The purpose of an M protein
antiphagocytic
What has cigar-shaped cysts and 4 nuclei and causes diarrhea?
entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica causes what disease?
liver abscess - amebic dysentery (flask-shaped ulcers)
Name the organism that causes unrelenting diarrhea in AIDS patients?
Cryptosporidium parvuum
Tx of Cryptosporidium Parvum in immunocompromised?
Spiramycin
Causative agent of diarrhea that has four nuclei and oval or elliptical cysts in stool?
Giardia lamblia (contrast to entamoeba which has spherical cysts in stool)
Tx of Giardia lamblia
Metronidazole
Which pathogen lacks muramic acid in its cell wall?
chlamydia
Name the viruses of the herpesvirus family
HSV, VZV, EBV and CMV
Where does the herpresvirus family get its envelope?
from the nucleus of the host cell
Which DNA virus is single stranded?
Parvovirus
Name the two papovaviruses
polyoma and papilloma
Name the only RNA virus that is double stranded
reovirus
Name the positive sense RNA viruses
calicivirus picornavirus, flavivirus, coronavirus, retrovirus, togavirus
name the (3) bugs of the calcivirus family
norwalk agent, hep E, and cruise ship agent
name the (6) bugs of the picornavirus family
polio, ECHO, entero, rhino, coxsackie, hep A
name the (5) bugs of the Flavivirus family
yellow fever, dengue, SLE, hep C, West Nile
name the (4) bugs of the togavirus family
Rubella, WEE, EEE, VEE
oxidase (+) microaerophilic Gram (-) comma-shaped rods that cause bloody/pus diarrhea 2 days s/p eating something bad?
campylobacter jejuni
Exposure to Parvovirus in first trimester results in a fetus with
aplastic anemia --> non-immune hydrops
A neonate with scarring and limb defects was likely exposed to
varicella
The 2 heart defects most commonly seen in neonates that had an intrauterine rubella infection are
pulmonary artery stenosis and PDA
Which toxin of clostridium perfringens is the most important in the pathogenesis of myonecrosis?
the alpha-toxin, a lecithenase
In order to grow H Flu on blood agar you can add this other bug in order to provide the necessary factors.
Staph aureas. It will cleave the RBCs to provide the factors since it is beta hemolytic. This is called the satellite phenomenon.
How does HepB cause liver cancer?
Integration of viral DNA into the host chromosomes
Which viruses have vecome oncogenic because they have captured cellular oncogenes in the past and then get inserted into host genome?
oncogenic retroviruses like HTLV 1 and 2
Primary mode of pathogenesis of liver cancer caused by Hep C?
continual cell growth and repair
Mechanism of HPV-caused cervical cancer.
Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.
Post-infectious encephalitis (s/p mumps, measles, varicella, rubella, influenza) pathological finding
perivenous microglial involvement with demyelination
Which groups of viruses must carry their own polymerases with them?
all negative RNA viruses (paramyxo, rhabdo, filo, orthomyxo, bunya, arena), dsRNA virus (reovirus), and retroviruses (HIV, HTLV, sarcoma)
sick adult man with lobar pneumonia and sputum showing abundant neutrophils and gram positive diplococci
strep pneumo
treatment of choice for strep pneumo pneumonia?
IIV PCN G
Which disease can you get by handling animal carcasses in mis., ark, and oklahoma?
tularemia
mode of transmission of leptospirosis?
contact with water infected by urine of animals (i.e. surfers)
assoc. with dog and cat bites
pasturella multicida
Which component of strep pneumo, a gram (+) acts as a chemotractant for neutrophils?
techoic acds and peptidoglycan
(note the capsule attracts antibodies, not PMNs)
Which bug causes community acquired pneumonia associated with upper lobe cavitation?
Klebsiella
Streptobaccilis monilliformis causes what?
rat-bite fever in the US
Spirillim minus causes what?
rat-bite fever in Japan
what is the difference between rat-bite fever (streptobacillis monilliformis) in the US and in Japan (spirillium minus)?
the incubation period in tnhe us is 1-3 days whereas in Japan it is 1-4 weeks
Psuedomonas mallei causes what?
glanders - in horses
name the process that occurs when lysates of one bacteria are added to the culture of another, and the lysates' DNA is taken up by the living cells
transformation
mechanism of genetic exchange that involves cell-to-cell contact between bacteria
conjugation
describe the process of generalized transduction
a virulent phage (virus vector) "accidentally" transfers DNA from one bacterium to another
what is the mechanism in which two pieces of circular DNA in specialized conduction during the life cycle of lysogenic viruses during transposon movement
site-specific transduction (note that this is how Hfr pieces are formed)
what is the mechanism of genetic exchange that involves transfer of bacterial genes using a lysogenic virus?
specialized transduction
The gene in H. Pylori indicated in the cause of cancer
CagA
Treatment of choice for antibiotic-caused C. Diff
metronidazole
The same vector that carries the but for lyme disease also carries this sporozoan
babesia microtii
Treatment of toxoplasma gondii
pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (act to inhibit folate synthesis)
a family with itchiness at night esp. flexor surfaces of wrists and elbows, belt lines, groin, scattered wavy lines with a dark dot at the end.
scabies
Virus found in the southwestern USA transmitted by the common deer mouse that results in a pulmonary syndrome that progresses to respiratory distress and death
hanta virus (a member of the bunyavirus family)
In which (4) families of viruses can genetic shift occur?
only in families that have segmented genomes: orthomyxoviruses, reovirus, bunyavirus, and arenavirus
Name the (4)viruses of the paramyxovirus family
parainfluenza
measles
mumps
RSV
this is a negative sense RNA virus
What is the mechanism that the paramyxoviruses (i.e. mumps) use to attach to host cells?
HN glycoprotein
Which two bugs both exert their toxic mechanisms by inhibiting EF-2?
pseudomonas and diptheria
Which layer of the skin does the HPV virus infect?
stratum basale
Name the viruses in the poxvirus family
molluscum contagiosum
variola
vacinella
what is the shape of the poxvirus?
brick shaped
Which DNA virus replicates in the cytoplasm?
poxvirus
The classic cause of chronic meningitis is
TB
The most common cause of infections of catheters and prosthetic valves is
staph epidermidis (gram +) extracellular, it produces a biofilm that helps it adhere even to teflon
Superantigen activity is posessed by
staph aureas and strep pyogenes
A vaccine for which organism is composed of polyribitol phosphate capsular polysaccharides coupled to a protein carrier?
H flu
the vagina of pre and post pubertal girls and women is colonized by
staph epidermidis and other normal skin flora (lactobcillis is in women of reproductive age)
Which enzyme does the poxvirus have to carry with it?
a DNA-dependant RNA polymerase
Gram (-) coccus that is an STD with over one million variants of pili
N. gonorrhea
these pili are also protective against phagocytosis
which spp has no true cell walls
mycoplasma
Which spp of bacteria have a waxy envelope?
mycoplasma
How does Staph Aureas protect itself from phagocytosis?
Protein A (binds the Fc component of IgG to prevent opsonization)
Clonorchis sinesis causes
cholangitis
Why doesn't histoplasmosis usually spread from person to person?
it is acquired through inhalation of soil dust. It is intracellular and thus doesn't spread from person to person.
What does cryptosporidium cause?
watery diarrhea
Cryptosporidium - mode of transmission?
between people or between people and animals
Where does the sexual life cycle of cryptosporidium occur?
in the brush border of the intestine
The sexual stages of toxoplasma gondi occur in
the intestinal mucosa of felines
Which type of hepatitis is associated with renal failure?
Hep B
The bug you can see with staining with India Ink is
Cryptococcus Neoformans
One unusual trait of Cryptococcus Neoformans is that it is
urease positive.
The growth medium of choice for Neisseria is
thayer-martin media
owls eye inclusions are characteristic of this virus
CMV
The test for toxin production by Cornybacterium diptheria is the
ELEK test
acute epididymitis and orchitis with prominent neutrophils in a sexually active male is usually due to
N. gonorrhea or C trachomatis (contrast to old men or kids with congenital defects the most likely pathogen is e. coli)
Persian gulf, female phlebotomine sandfly bite that results in an ulcerated sore, fever, fatigue, weakness, dysphagia, dyspnea, gray skin/thinning hair
leshmaniasis
Mode of Transmission
Ascaris Lumbricoides
fecal-oral
Causative agent of human granulocytic erlichosis
anaplasma phagocytophyllum
Northeast hiking, presence of morulas in PMNs (berry-like clusters) and sx of RMSF but without the rash
erlichosis
Erlichosis vector
ixodes tick, same as Lyme disease
agent of Q fever
coxiella burnetti
mode of transmission
coxiella burnetti
inhalation aerosols from infected animal tissues
free-living amoeba that can cause brain abscesses in immunocompromised
acanthamoeba spp (note naegleria fowlli can do the same in healthy adults)