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59 Cards in this Set

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Give two general functions of peptidoglycan
Gives rigid support - protects against osmotic pressure
How are Group A and Group B Strep primarily differentiated?
Group A are Bacitracin sensitive - Group B are Bacitracin resistant
How are the pathogenic Neisseria species differentiated?
on the basis of sugar fermentation
How are the species of Streptococcus primarily differentiated?
on the basis of their HEMOLYTIC capabilities
List the four phases of the bacterial growth curve.
Lag phase - log (exponential) phase - stationary phase - death phase
Name 2 G- rods that are considered slow lactose fermenters.
Citrobacter and Serratia
Name 3 G- rods that are considered fast lactose fermenters.
1) Klebsiella 2) E. coli 3) Enterobacter
Name 3 G- rods which are lactose nonfermenters and Oxidase(-)?
Shigella, Salmonella, Proteus
Name 4 bacteria that use IgA protease to colonize mucosal surfaces.
1) Strep. pneumoniae 2) Neisseria meningitidis 3) Neisseria gonorrhea 4) H. flu
Name 4 genus of bacteria that are G- 'coccoid' rods.
1) H. flu 2) Pasteruella 3) Brucella 4) Bordetella pertussis
Name 6 bacteria that don't Gram's stain well?
Treponema - Rickettsia - Mycobacteria - Mycoplasma - Legionella pneumophila - Chlamydia
Name four genus of bacteria that are G+ rods.
1) Clostridium (an anaerobe) 2) Coynebacterium 3) Listeria 4) Bacillus
Name seven G+ bacteria species that make exotoxins.
1) Corynebacterium diphtheriae 2) Clostridium tetani 3) Clostridium botulinum 4) Clostridium perfringens 5) Bacillus anthracis 6) Staph. aureus 7) Strep. pyogenes
Name three diseases caused by exotoxins.
Tetanus - botulism - diptheria
Name three G- bacteria species that make exotoxins.
1) E. coli 2) Vibrio cholerae 3) Bordetella pertussis
Name three Lactose-fermenting enterics
Eschericia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter
Name two diseases caused by endotoxins.
Meningococcemia - sepsis by G(-) rods
Name two type of Strep that exhibit alpha hemolysis?
S. pneumoniae - Viridans strep. (e.g. S. mutans)
Name two types of Strep. that are non-hemolytic (gamma hemolysis).
Enterococcus (E. faecalis) and Peptostreptococcus (anaerobe)
Name two types of Strep. that exhibit beta hemolysis.
Group A Strep. (GAS) and Group B Strep. (GBS)
Teichoic acid induces what two cytokines?
TNF and IL-1
What are the effects of erythrogenic toxin?
it is a superantigen - it causes rash of Scarlet fever
What are the effects of streptolysin O?
it is a hemolysin - it is the antigen for ASO-antibody found in rheumatic fever
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis?
one toxin in the toxin complex is an adenylate cyclase
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Bordetella pertussis? (3)
Stimulates adenylate cyclase by ADP ribosylation - causes whooping cough - inhibits chemokine receptor, causing lymphocytosis
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Clostridium botulinum?
blocks release of acetylcholine: causes anticholenergic symptoms, CNS paralysis; can cause 'floppy baby'
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Clostridium perfringens?
alpha toxin is a lecithinase - causes gas gangrene - get a double zone of hemolysis on blood agar
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Clostridium tetani?
blocks release of the inhibitory NT glycine; causes 'lockjaw'
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium diphtheria? (3)
1) inactivates EF-2 by ADP ribosylation 2) pharyngitis 3) 'pseudomembrane' in throat
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by E. coli? (2)
this heat labile toxin stimulates adenylate cyclase by ADP ribosylation of G protein - causes watery diarrhea
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Staph. aureus?
superantigen; induces IL-1 and IL-2 synthesis in Toxic Shock Syndrome; also causes food poisoning
What are the effects of the exotoxin secreted by Vibro cholerae? (3)
Stimulates adenylate cyclase by ADP ribosylation of G protein - increases pumping of Cl- and H2O into gut - causes voluminous rice-water diarrhea
What are the general clinical effects of endotoxin?(2)
fever, shock
What are three primary/general effects of endotoxin (especially lipid A)?
1) Acivates macrophages 2) Activates completment (alt. pathway) 3) Activates Hageman factor
What are two exotoxins secreted by Strep. pyogenes?
Erythrogenic toxin and streptolysin O
(T/F) The outer membrane for G+ and the cell membrane for G- act as major surface antigens
FALSE: they DO act a major surface antigens BUT the outer mb for G- and the cell membrane for G+
Are endotoxins heat stable?
yes, stable at 100C for 1 hr.
Are endotoxins secreted from cells?
NO
Are endotoxins used as antigens in vaccines?
no, they don't produce protective immune response
Are exotoxins heat stable?
no, destroyed rapidly at 60C (exception: Staphylococcal enterotoxin)
Are exotoxins secreted from cells?
yes
Are exotoxins used as antigens in vaccines?
Yes, TOXOIDS are used as vaccines
Describe the chemical composition of peptidoglycan.
Sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains
Describe the major components of a G- cell wall.
inner and outer lipid bilayer membranes - thin layer of peptidoglycan - periplasmic space - contains lipopolysaccharide, lipoprotein and phospholipid
Describe the major components of a G+ cell wall.
one lipid bilayer membrane - thick layer of peptidoglycan - contains teichoic acid
Describe the process of conjugation.
DNA transfer from one bacterium to another.
Describe the process of transduction.
DNA transfer by a virus from one cell to another
Describe the process of transformation
purified DNA is taken up by a cell
Does endotoxin induce and antigenic response?
no, not well
What are two functions of the pilus/fimbrae?
Mediate adherence of bacteria to the cell surface - sex pilus forms attachment b/t 2 bacteria during conjugation
What are two species of Gram (-) cocci and how are they differentiated?
1)Neisseria memingitidis: maltose fermenter 2) Neisseria gonorrhoeae: maltose NONfementer
What bacteria produces a blue-green pigment?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What bacteria produces a red pigment?
Serratia marcescens ('maraschino cherries are red')
What bacteria produces a yellow pigment?
Staph. aureus (Aureus= gold in Latin)
What culture requirements do Fungi have?
Sabouraud's agar
What culture requirements do Lactose-fermenting enterics have?
MacConkey's agar (make pink colonies)
What culture requirements does B. pertussis have?
Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
What culture requirements does C. diphtheriae have?
Tellurite agar
What culture requirements does H. flu have?
chocolate agar with factors V (NAD) and X (hematin