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136 Cards in this Set

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Microbiology is the study of organisms that cannot be seen without the use of a
microscope
Microorganisms are generally
__________in size or smaller.
1 millimeter
The 5 major groups of microorganisms are _____, ________,________,_______,______
viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, certain algae
Microorganisms colonize our ________ and ________ body surfaces where they form out normal __________.
external, internal, body flora (microbioto)
Microorganisms are a constant in our _________.
surrounding
Although many microbes are _________ and cause diseases, the overriding majority of them do not.
pathogenic
disease are paaaa.....
Many microorganisms are used to produce various useful products, including __________,__________, and some of the foods we eat.
antibiotics, vacciens
Microorganisms are at the base of all ecological ________ and contribute to the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles.
food chains.
Most of the lab exercises you will perform involve the study of _______.
bacteria
Which objective lens is used to study the characteristics of stained bacterial cells?
oil immersions lens
____________is considered the father of microscopy.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
The study of living organisms provides a visualization of their basic shape and _________.
motility
Are stained organisms dead or alive?
dead
`
The primary function of a microscope is to ________ the apparent size of a specimen.
magnify
The ____________ microscope has two types of lens: the ocular and the objective.
compound
The ocular lens is usually a_____ X lens.
10
The oil immersion lens is usually a _______x lens.
100
The total magnification using a 10x ocular lens and a 40x objective lens is ______.
400
_________refers to the clarity of the specimen's appearance.
resolution
The space between an objective lens in focus and a specimen is called the _________ _________
working disctance
The __________ controls the amount of the light that enters the condenser.
iris diaphragm
Which focus adjustment knob should be used with high- dry and oil immersion objective lenses?
fine focus knob
Which part of a microscope holds the slide in place for study?
mechanical stage
___________ is the study of the natural phenomenal in our surroundings.
science
The ________ ________ of investigation is the experimental rationale that is used to study natural occurrences.
scientific process
Ideally, the principles derived from scientific studies are based on __________ _______ of the results of research.
objective interpretations
To extend our natural senses, we use_______
instruments
The process of ________ _________ permits the separation and identification of molecules such as proteins and DNA.
gel electophoresis
Today, you will use the _______ microscope.
stereoscopic ( dissecting) microscope
we will use the microscope to see the small experimental animal _______ __________.
animal Daphna magna
You should realize that questioning the__________ is beyond the scope of science.
supernatural
A prediction based on the information at hand is referred to as a _____________.
hypothesis
_______ _________ are the conditions you will intentionally change (manipulate) during your experiment.
independent variable
__________ are the results (changes) you observe which are due to conditions you have manipulated in an experiment.
dependant variable
____________ an experiment and obtaining consistent results (reproducibility of results) is important in convincing other scientists that your findings are valid.
repeating
Once experimental data has been collected it can be presented in the form of text, tables, and _______
graphs
On the ___________ (horizontal axis), a scale indicating the magnitude of change in the independent variable is presented.
x axis
The y-axis (vertical axis) contains the ________ that are obtained during the experiment.
results
The conclusions are then used to support or ___________ the hypothesis of the researcher.
reject
The heart rate of a healthy daphnia is _________
120-300 bearts/min
During this experiment what two substances are added to the water in which daphina lives? ________ and ______
alcohol and caffeine
A__________ ________ is one that contains only one type of species or organism.
pure culture
Pure stock cultures can be used for _______ and genetic study.
biochemical
Culture_________ have been developed to meet the growth requirements of bacteria.
media
________is a solidifying agent that has the unique properties of melting at 95c and solidifying at 50c
agar
_________ are made by allowing the warm agar in a test tube to cool and solidify while the tube is placed on an incline.
agar slants
_______ are made by allowing the warm agar in a test tube to cool and solidify while the tube is standing straight up
agar stabs
when bacterial nutrients are added to water, a _______ is made.
nutrient broth
To decrease the likelihood of stock culture contamination, ________is used to transfer bacteria form one tube or plate to another.
aseptic technique
If a culture contains a mix of different microbes, studying the metabolic and genetic properties of an individual _________is impossible.
species
The technique used in this exercise to isolate bacteria is called the ________ _______ method.
streak plate
An inoculating _____________ will be used to physically separate bacteria as they are spread out over a smooth solid surface.
loop
As separate individual cells reproduce, a visible __________ of identical bacteria will develop.
colony
__________which are dissolved in the agar medium, are absorbed by bacteria as they grow and multiply.
nutrients
Agar plates should ALWAYS be kept ________ during incubation and storage.
upside down
In order to study microorganisms as individuals they must be isolated in __________
pure cultures.
Organisms may be isolated by plating them on __________ plates, ______ plates, and _______plates.
streak, spread, serial dilutions.
Pour plates and spread plates coupled with _________ can also be used to quantitatively determine the number of ____ organisms in specimen.
serial dilutions, viable
Pour plates together with serial dilutions are used to analyze _______,_________,_____, and some __________ specimens since only living cells are enumerated with this method.
food, water, milk, medical.
_________ is the independent movement of bacteria on a specific direction through the use of flagella.
motility
_________ _______ is the random movement of bacteria caused by their colision with molecules in their environment.
Brownian movement
The method of movement that moves a cell is a trait which is useful in the ________ of bacteria.
classification
while the staining of cells provides contrast between a cell and it's background, stained cells are _______.
dead
though unstained bacteria are more difficult to see________ can only be viewed when a specimen is living.
motility
Bacteria that are motile, propel themselves through the use of one or more __________.
flagella.
Flagella are semi rigid_____ which are attached to the bacterial cell surface.
helical rotors
_____________ on the surface of bacteria allow them to move in response to stimuli in their environment.
sensors
when bacteria use their sensors and flagella to move towards nutrients or away from irritants, the process is called____________
chemotaxis
When bacteria use their sensors and flagella to move towards or away from light, the process is called_________
phototaxis
Agar plates should ALWAYS be kept ________ during incubation and storage.
upside down
In order to study microorganisms as individuals they must be isolated in __________
pure cultures.
Organisms may be isolated by plating them on __________ plates, ______ plates, and _______plates.
streak, spread, serial dilutions.
Pour plates and spread plates coupled with _________ can also be used to quantitatively determine the number of ____ organisms in specimen.
serial dilutions, viable
Pour plates together with serial dilutions are used to analyze _______,_________,_____, and some __________ specimens since only living cells are enumerated with this method.
food, water, milk, medical.
_________ is the independent movement of bacteria on a specific direction through the use of flagella.
motility
_________ _______ is the random movement of bacteria caused by their colision with molecules in their environment.
Brownian movement
The method of movement that moves a cell is a trait which is useful in the ________ of bacteria.
classification
while the staining of cells provides contrast between a cell and it's background, stained cells are _______.
dead
though unstained bacteria are more difficult to see________ can only be viewed when a specimen is living.
motility
Bacteria that are motile, propel themselves through the use of one or more __________.
flagella.
Flagella are semi rigid_____ which are attached to the bacterial cell surface.
helical rotors
_____________ on the surface of bacteria allow them to move in response to stimuli in their environment.
sensors
when bacteria use their sensors and flagella to move towards nutrients or away from irritants, the process is called____________
chemotaxis
Agar plates should ALWAYS be kept ________ during incubation and storage.
upside down
In order to study microorganisms as individuals they must be isolated in __________
pure cultures.
When bacteria use their sensors and flagella to move towards or away from light, the process is called_________
phototaxis
Organisms may be isolated by plating them on __________ plates, ______ plates, and _______plates.
streak, spread, serial dilutions.
Pour plates and spread plates coupled with _________ can also be used to quantitatively determine the number of ____ organisms in specimen.
serial dilutions, viable
Pour plates together with serial dilutions are used to analyze _______,_________,_____, and some __________ specimens since only living cells are enumerated with this method.
food, water, milk, medical.
_________ is the independent movement of bacteria on a specific direction through the use of flagella.
motility
_________ _______ is the random movement of bacteria caused by their colision with molecules in their environment.
Brownian movement
The method of movement that moves a cell is a trait which is useful in the ________ of bacteria.
classification
while the staining of cells provides contrast between a cell and it's background, stained cells are _______.
dead
though unstained bacteria are more difficult to see________ can only be viewed when a specimen is living.
motility
Bacteria that are motile, propel themselves through the use of one or more __________.
flagella.
Flagella are semi rigid_____ which are attached to the bacterial cell surface.
helical rotors
_____________ on the surface of bacteria allow them to move in response to stimuli in their environment.
sensors
when bacteria use their sensors and flagella to move towards nutrients or away from irritants, the process is called____________
chemotaxis
When bacteria use their sensors and flagella to move towards or away from light, the process is called_________
phototaxis
Flagella vary in their chemical composition, __________ and __________ on a cell
number and location
Slides will be prepared for Gram staining using the organisms Micro coccus luteus and ______ _______
E. coli (gram neg, control)
The dye, crystal violet is placed on the slide and allowed to sit for _______ seconds.
60 seconds
________ techniques require the use of two or more dyes.
differential staining
These dyes allow us to distinguish between microbes based on some physical or ______ characteristic.
chemical
The __________ _______ is a differential staining technique.
gram stain.
Cells that retain the primary dye (crystal violet), are purple in appearance and are called__________ _________
gram positive
If a cell is decolonized, and then retains the ________ (safranin), it will appear pink and its called Gram negative.
counter stain
The gram staining traits of bacteria are based on their _____ _________ composition
cell envalope
Gram positive cells have a cell envelope which is composed of _________ basic layers.
3
the middle layer of a Gram positive cell envelope is composed of a thick, multi layered ____________
cell wall
the innermost layer of the cell envelope, in contact with a cell's cytoplasm is composed of a ____________
semipermeable membrane
when gram positive cells are stained, smaller single molecules of _________ and _______ easily pass through the cell envelope of bacteria.
crystal violet & iodine
gram negative cells have a cell envelope which is composed of ________ basic layers.
4
The outermost of the bacterial envelope layers is some sort of protective jacket such as a _____.
capsule
when ___________ is applied to gram negative cells it disrupts the outer cell membrane.
alcohol acetone
the CV-I complex washes out through the thin _________ of gram negative cells.
cell wall
gram positive and gram negative cells react differently to _________ which are used to control disease.
chemotherapeutic agents
gram staining is an effective technique for the _________ of bacteria.
identification
q
If a bacterial culture is ____________, Gram positive bacteria tend to stain pink and look like gram negative cells.
old
slides containing bacteria and a green stain will be place over a beaker of ________ _____
hot water
the microbe that will be used in the endospore staining procedure is _________ ___________
bacillus megathenum
the_______ objective lens is used to study stained endospores.
low power objective lens
_________ are durable, dehydrated structures that certain bacteria produce as a mechanism to survive under harsh enrironmental conditions.
endospores
bacteria in the genera, Bacillus and ________ are capable of producing endospores.
clostridium
endospores are formed in a process called _______
sporulation
The stimulus for sporulation is usually some environmental stress such as the depletion of an essential __________.
nutrient
the switching on and off of genes in cells for different cell traits is called a true ______, a rare event in bacteria.
differentiation
The endospore is composed of several protective _________ which surround a central core.
layers
The core of an endospore contains ___________, ribosomes and enzymes, the same as those in the active cells.
DNA
the core of an endospore is dehydrated and contains a large amount of the salt _________ _____________.
calcium dipicolinate
once formed, endospores are resistant to _________, chemicals, and elevated tempertures.
radiation
the endospore will not exhibit metabolic or ________ activity until it returns to the active state.
reproductive
the process by which endospores return to the active state is called________
germination
the study of endospores is important because in some cases they are formed by _____ _________
pathogenic bacteria
the procedure used to stain endospores involved steaming these structures as they are bathed in hot _________ ________
malachite green
the counter stain__________, is used to stain what remains of the cell.
safranin