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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fundamental unit of heredity
DNA segment which codes for protein or rna
Population of cells that are genetically identical
All genes present in a cell or virus
Specific set of genes an organism possesses
Set of observable characteristics
The manner in which genetic instructionsfor polypeptide synthesis are stored within genome
The genetic code
Sequence of base pairs in DNA corresponds to the amino acid sequence of poylpeptide encoded
Usually small, closed circular DNA molecules; exist/replicate independently of chromosome; not required for growth and reproduction; may carry genes that confer selective advantage (e.g. drug resistance)
This enzyme coils the chromosome into a tight bundle
The basic unit of DNA structure is
Each nucleotid is composed of
phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and a nitrogenous base
A nitrogenous base that is an important encoding component of DNA/RNA. Two most common are adenine and guanine
Nitrogen bases that help form the genetic code on DNA/RNA. Uracil, thymine, and cytosine.
Nitrogenous bases include
adenine, thymine (uracil),cytosine and guanine.
chain of nucleotides are linked by what kind of bond
phosphodiester bond
nitrogenous bases are linked (A and T, C and G) by what kind of bond
hydrogen, A and T double hydrogen bond and C and G by a triple hydrogen bond
Body that contains the bacterial chromosome
In this type of type of cell, the chromosome usually exists as closed circular, supercoiled molecule
Proteins associated with eucaryotic DNA. These simple proteins serve as winding spools to compact and condense the chromosome
Pattern of DNA synthesis in procaryotes
bidirectional from a single origin of replication
Portion of the genome that contains an origin and is replicated as a unit
Pattern of DNA synthesis in eucaryotes
bidirectional and multiple origins of replication
Structure in the packaging of dna. Formed by the DNA strands wrapping aroun the histone protein to form nucleus bodies arranged like beads on a chain
The process of DNA duplication is called
DNA replication
Overall process of DNA replication
(1) Uncoil, (2) unzip,(3) synthesize new strands
This is a short sequence rich in A and T.
Origin of replication
Origin of replication is rich in A and T why?
Less energy is required to break the double hydrogen bond between A and T as opposed to the triple hydrogen bond of C and G.
Prior to the start of replication, what enzyme binds to the DNA at the origin
DNA polymerase III
The process of synthesizing a new daughter strand of DNA using the parental strand as a template is carried out by this enzyme
DNA polymerase III
Replication beings when this enzyme is synthesized and enters at the origin of replication.
RNA primer/primase
True or False. DNA polymerase III cannot begin synthesis unless it has RNA primer to serve as the starting point for adding nucelotids.
True or False. DNA polymerase III is unable to begin synthesizing a chain of nucleotides but can only continue to add nucleotides to an already existing chain
This strand is synthesized as a continuous, complete strand and in what direction
leading strand and from 5 to 3
This strand is synthesized in fragments and in what direction and why
lagging strand and 3 to 5 because it is antiparellel to 5 to 3.
Fragments produced by the lagging strand are termed what
Okazaki fragments
This enzymes removes the primer, closes gaps, and repairs mismatches
DNA polymerase I
This enzyme attaches the Okazaki fragments.
DNA ligase
This enzyme causes supercoiling of the helis
The nucelic acid responsible for for carrying out the hereditary program transmitted by an organism's DNA.
RNA (ribonucelic acid).
mRNA synthesis; the process by which a strand of RNA is prodced against a DNA template
In this type of neucelic acid (DNA or RNA) uracil replaces thymine
True/False - RNA is a single stranded molecule hat exists in helical fom
The sugar in RNA is what
This type of RNA is a copy of a structural gene/genes in the DNA
mRNA (messenger RNA)
This type of RNA carries the DNA master code to the ribosome
A specific of three nucleotides in mRNA (or the sense sequence strand of DNA) that constitutes the genetic code for a particular amino acid.
A transcipt of DNA specializes in converting RNA language into protein language.
tRNA (transfer RNA).
The trinucleotide sequence of transfer RNA that is complementary to the trinucleotide sequence of messenger RNA (the codon)
At the bottom of tRNA is an anticodon that specifies the attachment of a particular amino acid, this occurs at which end (5 or 3).
This coordinates the codons of mRNA with tRNA anticodons and in so doing constitutes the peptide assembly line
The interactions of proteins and rRNA create the two subunits of what and engage in what?
ribosome and final translation of the genetic code
Enzyme process that translates the code of DNA to RNA
RNA polymerase
Transcription is initated when RNA polymerase recognizes a segment of the DNA called what
promoter region
During replication, this enzyme also causes elongation
DNA polymerase III
During replication, this enzyme can also detect incorrect, unmatching bases, excise them, and replace them with the correct base
DNA polymerase III
In translation, all of the elements needed to synthesize a protein are brought together on the
In initiation of translation, the small subunit binds to what site (5 or 3) and the large subunit supplies what
5 and enzymes for making peptide bonds on the protein.
What is the first codon the ribosome encounters while scanning the mRNA
start codon which is almost always AUG.
With the mRNA message in place on the assembled ribosome, the next step in translation involves entrance of what
tRNAs with their amino acids