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88 Cards in this Set

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INVENTION OF MICROSCOPE?
ROBERT HOOKE IN 1664,FIRST TO OBSERVE "FRUITING BODIES"OF FUNGI.
1ST TO SEE MICROBE?
LEWENHOKE IN 1600,SAW WEE ANIMICULES.
STUDY BIOLOGY OF BACTERIA?
R COHN IN 1800,LIFE CYCLE OF BACILLUS.
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION SOLUTION?
PASTEUR 1800.FLASK EXP,DEVELOPED PASTEURIZATION/STERILIZATION.
AUTOCLAVE?
KILLS HEAT RESISTANT MICROBES USE OF HEAT AND PRESSURE.
WHY ARE KOCHS POSTULATES PREFORMED AND PROVES?
TO PROVE THE MICROORGANISM CAUSES DISEASE.SPECIFIC ORGANISM.
CAUSES ANTHRAX/WHEN/WHAT THEORY?
ROBERT KOCH/1800/GERM THEORY OF DISEASE.
KOCH POSTULATES?
1)PATHOGEN MUST BE PRESENT IN DISEASED ANIMAL AND NOT IN HEALTHY AMIMALS.
2)SUSPECT ORGANISM MUST BE GROWN IN PURE CULTURE.
3)SUSPECT ORGANISM MUST CAUSE DISEASE IN HEALTHY AMIMAL.
4)SUSPECT ORGANISM SHOULD BE REISOLATED AND SHOWN AS SAME AS ORIGINAL.
THE TERM PROKARYOTE REFERS TO?
CELL ORGANIZATION.
ARCHAEBACTERIA ARE MOST CLOSELY RELATED TO EUBACTERIA THAN TO EUKARYA?
FALSE.
WHICH DOMAINS ARE EUBACTERIA RELATED MOST CLOSELY?
A)ARCHAEBACTERIA
B)EUKARYA
C)NEITHER(correct)
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE PROKARYOTES?
ARCHAEBACTERIA AND EUBACTERIA
ORGANISM GROWING ON CO2 WITH IRON AS ENERGY SOURSE IS?
CHEMOAUTOTROPH.
MICRORGANISM GROWING ON GLUCOSE AS BOTH CARBON AND ENERGY SOURCE IS?
CHEMOHETEROTROPH.
ORGANISM GROWING ON ORGANIC CARBON AND HYDROGEN?
CHEMOORGANOAUTOTROPH.
CELL TAHT GROWS ON CO2 AND HYDROGEN?
CHEMOAUTOTROPH.
HOW ARE PROTEINS HELD IN PLACE IN CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE?
HYDROPHOBIC/HYDROPHILLIC INTERACTIONS.
WHICH CANNOT DIFFUSE ACROSS A CELL MEMBRANE?
H+ OR PROTONS.
WHAT ARE THE ENERGY SOURCES TO PRODUCE LIGHT METABOLISM?
LIGHT OR CHEMICAL.
INSTEAD OF FATTY ACIDS ARCHAEBACTERIAL MEMBRANES HAVE?
ISOPRENES BOUND TO GLYCEROL BY ETHER LINKAGES.
ORGANIC CARBON AND LIGHT?
PHOTOHETEROTROPH.
CHEMOAUTOTROPH?
CHEMICAL AND CO2
MEMBRANE MONOLAYERRS ARE STONG DUE TO? AND ARE FOUND WHERE?
COVALENT BONDS AND ARE FOUND IN SOME ARCHAEA.
EUKARYA MEMBRANES?WHAT PHYSICALLY STABILIZES THE CELL MEMBRANE?
HAVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS,STEROLS WHICH ARE RIGID PLANAR RING STRUCTURES.
PLYMOLYSIS OCCURS WHEN?
CELL IS IN AN ENVIORMENT THAT IS LESS DILUTE( MORE SOLUTE)THAN THE CYTOPLASM.
PLYMOLYSIS OCCURS DUE TO THE PROCESS OF?
OSMOSIS.
RIDGID WALLS HELP WHAT?
COUNTERACT "TURGOR PRESSURE"
PROKARYOTES ( BACTERIA)HAVE
HOW MANY PROTEINS?
3 TYPES PRESENT
a)UNIPORTER
b)SYMPORTER
c)ANTIPORTER
CELL BRINGS IN SUBSTANCE ACROSS CYTO PLAS MEMBRANE WITH ANOTHER SUBSTANCE?
SYMPORTER
ANTIPORTERS?
TRANSPORT SUBSTANCE IN ONE DIRECTION INTO THE MEMBRANE WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY TRANSPORTING A 2ND SUBSTANCE IN THE OPPOSIT DIRECTION.
UNIPORTERS?
MOVE SUBSTANCES IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY.
3 CATAGORIES OF TRANSPORT IN TERMS OF DRIVE?
SIMPLE TRANSPORT
GROUP TRANSLOCATION
ABC SYSTEM.
IF A CELL CHEMICALLY MODIFIES A SUBSTANCE AND MOVES IT INTO THE MEMBRANE ?
GROUP TRANSLOCATION.active transport,fig 4.25 e coli EG SHOWS PEP TRANSFORMED AND THE FINAL PRODUCT IS GLUCOSE 6 PHOSPHATE
SIMPLE TRANSPORT /EXAMPLE
REQUIRES MEMBRANE SPANNING PROTEIN,ENERGY FROM CONC GRADIENT,USES PMF,EG LAC PERMEASE.
LAC PERMEASE?
as symporter
LAC is lactose
PERMEASE is an enzyme
ABC SYSTEM? FOUND WHERE?POWERED BY?
ASSOCIATED WITH PERIPLASMIC BINDING PROTEINS.FOUND ONLY IN GRAM - BACTERIA.POWERED BY ATP.
LPS LAYERS ARE FOUND IN ? WHAT IS UNIQUE TO THIS LAYER?
GRAM - BACTERIA. PORINS ARE UNIQUE TO GRAM - BACTERIA.
GRAM - HAS HOW MANY LAYERS?
LPS LAYER
PERIPLASMIC LAYER
PEPTIDOGLYCAN
WHEN PREFORMING A GRAM STAIN,WHY IS THE LAST STEP CARRIED OUT?
TO STAIN THE TEST ORGANISM,IF IT IS GRAM +
WHY DOES GRAM STAIN DIFFRENCIATE BETWEEN + & - ?
DUE TO THE THICKNESS OF THE PEPTIDOGLYCAN LAYER.
UNIPORTERS?
MOVE SUBSTANCES IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY.
3 CATAGORIES OF TRANSPORT IN TERMS OF DRIVE?
SIMPLE TRANSPORT
GROUP TRANSLOCATION
ABC SYSTEM.
IF A CELL CHEMICALLY MODIFIES A SUBSTANCE AND MOVES IT INTO THE MEMBRANE ?
GROUP TRANSLOCATION.active transport,fig 4.25 e coli EG SHOWS PEP TRANSFORMED AND THE FINAL PRODUCT IS GLUCOSE 6 PHOSPHATE
SIMPLE TRANSPORT /EXAMPLE
REQUIRES MEMBRANE SPANNING PROTEIN,ENERGY FROM CONC GRADIENT,USES PMF,EG LAC PERMEASE.
LAC PERMEASE?
as symporter
LAC is lactose
PERMEASE is an enzyme
NOT FOUND IN PERIPLASMIC SPACE?
PORINS, ONLY FOUND ON OUTER MEMBRANE OF GRAM - BACTERIA.PRESENT ARE CHEMORECEPTORS,HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES,BINDING PROTEINS IN ABC SYSTEM.
UNIQUE TO LPS LAYER?
PORINS,
GRAM+?
1 THICK LAYER OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN,90%.
PEPTIDOGLYCAN?
FUNCTIONS IN RIDIGITY,ONLY IN EUBACTERIA.
GRAM + BACTERIA STAINS PURPLE DUE TO?
1ST DYE GETTING TRAPPED IN PEPTIDOGLYCAN LAYER.
HOW DO ARCHAEBACTERIA SURVIVE IN BOILING ACID?
ISOPRENE MONOLAYERCELL MEMBRANES.
PEPTIDOGLYCAN COMPSED OF WHICH 2 SUGAR DERIVATES?
a) N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE
b) N-ACETYLMURAMIC ACID
LPS LAYER MADE UP OF?
O-POLYSACCHARIDES
CORE-POLYSACCHARIDES.
LIPID A?
NOT FATTY ACIDS,IT IS THE LIPID PORTION OF THE LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE.IT IS ALSO A TOXIN.
LIPOPROTEINS?
ANCHOR OUTER LAYER OF LPS TO PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
TECHOIC ACIDS?
FOUND IN GRAM + BACTERIA,THEY ARE - CHARGED WHICH HELPS ATTRACT H+.ATTACHED TO OUTER PART OF CELL/TRUE ENVIORMENT
GRAM+ OUTER LAYER IS?
_ CHARGED AND HELPS STABILIZE PROTON GRADIENT.
ARACHEA WALLS?
NO PEPTIDOGLYCAN/SOME HAVE CELL WALLS MADE UP OF A POLYSACCHARIDE SIMILAR TO PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
PSEUDOPEPITDOGLYCAN?
GIVES RIGIDITITY TO ARCHAEBACTERIA CELL WALL.
N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE?
FOUND IN BOTH EUBACTERIA & ARCHAEBACTERIA.IN BOTH PEPTIDOGLYCAN AND PSEUDOGLYCAN.
NOT FOUND IN EUBACTERIA CELL WALLS?
N-ACETYLALOSAMINURONIC ACID
FOUND ONLY IN ARCHAEBACTERIA CELL WALLS.
NOT FOUND IN ARCHAEL CELL WALLS?
N-ACETYLMURAMIC ACID WHICH IS FOUND ONLY IN BACTERIA.
EUKARYA CELL WALLS HAVE ONLY?
PLANTS /ALGAE HAVE CELL WALLSALSO FUNGI.HIGHLY VARIABLE MAY HAVE CELLULOSE/CHITIN/SILICA/CaCO3.ANIMAL CELLS HAVE NO WALLS.
ADVANTAGE OF BEING SMALL BACTERIUM?WHY NOT EVOLVE TO LARGER SIZE?
INCREASED SURFACE TO VOLUME RATIO.WHICH ALLOWS INCREASES RATE OF MOVEMENT IN/OUT OF CELL.
METABOLISM?
ALL CHEMICAL PROCESSES TAKING PLACE WITHIN THE INSIDE OF A CELL.
ANABOLISM?
BIOSYNTHESIS, CELL BUILDING FROM CHEMICALS WITHIN THE ENVIORMENT.
CATABOLISM?
ENERGY YEILDING METABOLIC REACTIONS.
ARACHEA WALLS?
NO PEPTIDOGLYCAN/SOME HAVE CELL WALLS MADE UP OF A POLYSACCHARIDE SIMILAR TO PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
PSEUDOPEPITDOGLYCAN?
GIVES RIGIDITITY TO ARCHAEBACTERIA CELL WALL.
N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE?
FOUND IN BOTH EUBACTERIA & ARCHAEBACTERIA.IN BOTH PEPTIDOGLYCAN AND PSEUDOGLYCAN.
NOT FOUND IN EUBACTERIA CELL WALLS?
N-ACETYLALOSAMINURONIC ACID
FOUND ONLY IN ARCHAEBACTERIA CELL WALLS.
NOT FOUND IN ARCHAEL CELL WALLS?
N-ACETYLMURAMIC ACID WHICH IS FOUND ONLY IN BACTERIA.
OXIDATION?
REMOVAL OF AN ELECTRON.
REDUCTION?
ADDITION OF AN ELECTRON.
OXIDANT?
OXIDIZING AGENT/ELECTRON ACCEPTOR.WHICH REMOVES e- FROM SUBSTANCE.eg O2 IS A STRONG OXIDANT.
REDUCTANT?
REDUCING AGENT/ ELECTRON DONOR. DONATES e-, HYDROGEN IS A STRONG REDUCTANT.
WHEN SUBSTANCE IS OXIDIZED,A 2ND SUBSTANCE MUST BE REDUCED. WHERE IS THE 2ND SUBSTANCE?
NEXT TO THE FIRST SUBSTANCE.
ELECTRON DONOR FOR OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS?
H20
DURING OYYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS WHERE IS O2 PRODUCED?
FROM THE e- DONOR WHICH IS H2O.
DURING OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS , ATP PRODUCED?
BY CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION AND BY NON CYCLIC PHOTIPHOSPHORYLATION.
BOTH PHOTOSNH e- CHAIN AND ATPASE.
DURING CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION WHERE DOES THE e- COME FROM?
H2O
DURING NON CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION WHERE DOES THE e- COME FROM?
H2O
PHOTOSYNTHETIC ENERGY USED TO BOOST SAME e- IT IS CALLED?AND WHY WOULD THE CELL DO THIS?
CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORLATION
TO MAKE ATP.
IF A PHOTOSYNTHESIZING CELL USING LIGHT ENERGY TO BOOST A NEW e- ONTO THE PHT SYN TRANS CHAIN,WHERE DO THE OLD e- GO?
TO NAD(P)+
HOW IS CYCLIC & NON CYCLIC PHOSPHORYLATION COUPLED TO ATP PRODUCTION?
BY ATP SYNTHASE
QUINONES AND NADH+H ARE?
HYDROGEN CARRIERS.
CYTOCHROME?
e- CARRIER.
LIGHT ENERGY CAPTURED BY?
FOR PHOTOSYNTHETIC PRODUCTION OF ENERGY?
PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS.