Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lydia Rabinowitsch
Studied the bacteriology, serology, and pathogensesis of tuberculosis.
Demonstrated that attenuated organisms were stable even after passage in guinea pigs and rabbits
Giuseppina Cattani
Produced numerous publications on the bacteriology and immunology of tetanus
Was involved in the means to standardize and commercially produce antitoxins
First to cure tetanus in humans
Fannie Hesse
Wife suggested to use agar-agar, a derivative of seaweed which she had been using for fruit and vegetable jellies according to a Javanese recipe long used by her family
Olga Nikolaevna Belokopitova
Published important experimental studies of germfree tadpoles
Mary Bruce
Her expertise of microscopic techniques, staining methods, and medium preparation contributed significantly to the success of their studies of trypanosmiasis, tsetse flies, and sleeping sickness
Grace Coleridge Frankland
Were among the first to chemically analyze fermentation and the ability of soil bacteria to form and reduce nitrates.
First described spontaneous generation- the belief that nonliving matter could spontaneously give rise to living organisms
Martinus Beijerink
Isolated bacteria that trap nitrogen in the soil and make it available to plants for growth
Developed many types of lab medias for environmental biology
Ernst Chain & Hoard Florey
pathologist Florey & biochemist Chain purified penicillin & carried out clinical trials that showed the antimicrobial properties of penicillin
Max Dulbruck & Salvador Luria
showed that E.coli could develop spontaneous mutations that led to resistance to bacteriophage infection
Paul Ehrlich
1910, synthesized an arsenic based compound, 606, found to be an effective treatment of syphilis
f) the first "magic bullet" - a chemical that would search out & destroy pathogens
Alexander Fleming
isolated mold & identified it as a species of Penicillium
Girolamo Fracastoro
postulated that disease was transmitted by invisible particles or seeds
Jan Baptista van Helmont
He observed that rats originate from wheat bran and old rags
Dimitri Ivanowsky
Studied tobacco moasaic disease from
Zacharias Janssen
Invention of the modern microscope
Edward Jenner
used cowpox virus to protect against smallpox.
Robert Koch
Verified germ theory of disease
Developed cultivation methods for bacteria
Isolated bacterium that causes tuberculosis
Developed staining methods for bacteria
Investigated cholera, malaria, sleeping sickness
Koch’s Postulates
Anton van Leewenhoek
Hobby was grinding lenses & building microscopes, & examining samples from various sources. First described bacteria.
Joseph Lister
credited with the establishment of aseptic technique - the procedure of destroying or removing viable microorganisms from the environment
John Needham
Boiled several tubes of gravy & sealed the tubes with corks
Observed the gravies with a microscope, saw "animicules", supports spontaneous generation
Louis Pasteur
Proposed germ theory of disease
Disproved theory of spontaneous generation
Developed immunization techniques
Resolved pebrine problem of silkworms
Developed rabies vaccine
Julius Petri
Invented the Petri dish
Francesco Redi
Believed that flies had reproductive organs & when they landed on pieces of exposed meat, they lay their invisible eggs, these hatch into visible maggots
Howard Ricketts
Showed that ticks transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Ignaz Semmelweis
suggested the mode of disease transmission was from the hands of the physician to maternity patient, source of the infection were cadavers physicians previously performed autopsies on
showed that hand washing in chlorinated water prevented the spread
John Snow
cholera outbreak in London
c) carried out one of the first epidemiological studies
d) plotted the location of each cholera case on a London map
e) traced the source of the outbreak to a sewage-contaminated public water pump
f) enacted one of the first public health measures to stop disease transmission - had the water pump’s handle removed
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Disputed spontaneous generation
Boiled flasks of meat & vegetable broths for longer periods & sealed the flasks
Also set up a control experiment - left some of the flasks open to the air, others stoppered with loose fitting corks & some boiled only briefly
Sergius Winograsky
Discovered that certain bacteria could metabolize sulfur while other bacteria could use carbon dioxide to synthesize carbohydrates, much as plants do in photosynthesis