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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explain the specificity/targeted action of an antibiotic
Patients with bacteria; use antibiotics for bacteria but doesn't work for humans so it produces an adverse effect in humans and by antibiotics
what does the cell wall have
what is beta lactams and what does it include
it is the site of action on the peptidoglycan and it includes penicillin and cephalosporins
what do eukaryotes lack
since eukaryotes lack peptidoglycan what can antibiotics not treat
they can not treat fungal/protozoan/worm infections
what is protein synthesis in bacteria inhibited by
it is inhibited by tetracylcine, erythomycin, aminoglycoside, chlorphenicol
tetracycline, erythomycin, aminoglycosides, chlorophenicol bind to what?
they bind to 70S ribosomes in bacteria rather than 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes in eukaryotes.
If you use erythomycin for acne (bacteria on the skin) where will it not work
It will not work on the arm because it has 80S ribosomes
What is the DNA gyrase in bacteria selectively inhibited by?
What are fluoroquinolones
norfloxacin/ ciprofloxacin/ levoflaxacin/ temoflaxacin
why do FQs have higher affinity to bacterial DNA gyrase
because they lack histones in bacterial DNA
If you added a FQ antibiotic what would it preferably be bound to?
It would be bound to Bacterial DNA gyrase preferably but not in DNA gyrase
What is the importance of DNA gyrase
it involves DNA replication, in which the gyrase (same as topoisomerase) unwinds in DNA
What is a nucleic acid precursor synthesis inhibited by
it is inhibited by sulfa drugs in bacteria that are not in eukaryotes because they use a different pathway where it is susceptible to inhibition
What are some of the side effects of FQs
it casues juvenile arthropathy, photosensitivity, photomutagen, cardiac anomalies
what is arthropathy
it is joint pain (weight bearing on joints); bone enlarged by ossification
what does FQs inhibit
if children use FQs for an extended period what is it risk associated with
what would be another model other than humans that would have the same side effects
a beagle dog
why is chlorophenicol not recommended for children
it supprsesses hematopoiesis (blood formation)
what is gentamycin and tobeamycin
they are aminoglycosides
what are gentamycin and tobeamycin associated with
they are associated with nephrotoxicity (kidney disease) and ototoxicity (ear/hearing)
aminoglycosides through I.V. or I.M. requires monitoring of blood levels. what are the acceptable limits?
1.peak of 10-12 ug/ml through 1-2 ug/ml
2. aminoglycosides clearance decreased by renal dysfunction/insuffinciency
if aminoglycosides clearance is decreased by renal dysfunction/insufficiency what does it do
it increases creatine, decreases urine output, increases BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
dosage reductions of aminoglycosides are mandatory in what patients
patients with renal failure and decrease real output
this is an antifungal agent for systemic fungal infections
toxicity of ampothericin B
how would you administer ampothericin B
it is given as a test-loading dose initially, followed by a slow infusion over several hours
what is a therapeutic ratio
it is an effective concentration that will inhibit bacteria and treat infection to avoid toxicity to patient
what does ampthericin bid preferably to
what would you do to a patient in aminoglycosides when their levels are above normal peak
you would spread out their medication and reduce their dosage
what is the inner cristae of mitochondria equivalent to
it is equivalent to the cell membrane of baceria
what is ETC/TCA in the matrix of mitochondria equivalent to
it is equivalent to the cytoplasm of bacteria
mitochondria and bacteria divide by what
binary fission
what kind of ribosomes do mitochondira and bacteria have
70S ribosomes
what ribosomes do the eukaryotic cytoplasm have
80S ribosomes
what is the outer membrane of the mitochondria derived from
it is derived from the cell membrane of host cell
what does endosymbiosis not explain
it does not explain the origin of the endoplasmic reiticulum, golgi, and nuclear membrane
what is endosymbiosis
within, mutually beneficial
what does endosymbiosis do
they are large primitive cells that engulf bacteria for food
what do large primitive cells do
they retain bacteria as endosymbiont dominated susequent evolution to produce eukaryotes
what is autogeny
it is a sef induced thermal reorganization
why is the study of metabolism important
because it is the sume of the total biochemical reactions taking place in a living cell
what are the inner membrane of bacteria subject to
they are subject to infoldong on electron microscopy
give an example of a large bacteria that is 1mm (visible to naked eye and has extensive internal membranes
thiomargarita namibiensis and erulipschium fihelsoni
most bacteria dont phagotize except
early bacteris (boleovibrio)
what do phagocytic bacteria do
they feed on other bacteria similar to phagocytosis
how did eukaryotes evolve
by combination of autgeny and endosymbiosis
what are the two phases of metabolism
anabolism and catabolsism
what is anabolism
it is the synthesis of needed material
what is catabolism
is it the degradation/breakdown of materials (macromolecules)
how are anabolism and catabolism interconnected
they are connected by macromolecule breakdown, common intermediates, enzymes, waste products, heat, atp production and utilization
what new macromolecules are made what are they
they are characteristics of the old one
what does sweat cause
vasodilation, which means high metabolism activity
what is the realtion between vital signs and metabolic activity
septic shock; industry to organic methane, biochemical profiles, mechanism, symptoms to find disease and metabolic activity which has O2 saturation, increase PCO2, acidosis and ketoacidosis
what are mostof many biological reactions "spontaneous" is energy input required?
it is required to initiate a reaction
In metabolic reactions what does atp help out
it helps convert endergonic reaction to an exergonic reaction
what is metabolism important in Diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease
1. microbial infection results in significant change in patient status
2. uses those changes to infer infection.
3. measures vital signs
4. explain, detect, diagnose, treat infectious disease
5.provide basis for control of microbial activity
6. facilitate and understanding of pathogenesis and altered mechanisms
7. provide basis/means for ID in clinical lab
8. industrial application for food fuel pharmaceutics and biotechnology
how do you ID bacteria
you do a gram stain to get a biochemical profile to find the enzyme, substrate for growth and product to get the definitive ID
how do ID fungi
it is dominated by morphology, biochemical profile is less important
how do ID a virus/ protozoa, worms
you would ID it by its morphology
if a fish smells bad what is it a high potential of
it is a high potential for infection (vibrio vulnificus)
if food what spoiled how would you indicate it by
by odor
what would be a high risk of infection in food spoilage
what is the diagnosis for gardnella vaginalis
urethritis/cervicillis vaginitis
how would they test for gardnella vaginalis
first they would take a speciman from a cervical swab, put it on a slide, add KOH, has a distinct fishy odor (whiff test). Then do a gram stain, look a the cells, epithelial cells covered with gram negative coccobacilli
how do you know if you have gas gangrene/decubitis ulcers
it would have an obvious odor;overpowering/noticeable
what does odor indicate usually
bad breath is an indication of what
poor dental hygeine/ gingivitis/body odor/ flatulence
what are the end products of gas chromatography
butaric acid, isobuyric acid and isocaproic acid
How do you ID clostridium difficile
usually 5 days to growth by productions of toxins A and B
what are the tests for clostridium difficile
obtain feces, put in a selective broth (CCF), toxic assay, incubate for 24-48 hrs, extract volatiles, do gas chromatograph, end product isocaproic acid