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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 gram + cocci?
streptococcus and staphylococcus
Which is the gram neg. coccus?
Name the 5 gram + rods.
corynebacterium, listeria, bacillus, clostridium and mycobacterium
What are the 3 spiral gram neg. bacteria?
The spirochetes: treponema, borrelia, leptospira
What are 2 pleiomorphic gram neg. bacteria?
chlamydia and rickettsia
What's the name for bacteria without cell wall?
What does it mean for a bacterium to be microaerophilic?
They use fermentation and have no ETC system. They can tolerate some oxygen because they have superoxid dismutase.
Which gram + bacterium is microaerophilic?
Which of the gram + bacteria is an obligate anaerobe?
Name 4 facultative anaerobic gram + bacteria.
Staphylococcus, bacillus anthracis, corynebacterium listeria, actinomyces
What does it mean for a bacterium to be a facultative anaerobe?
It is really aerobic, but can use fermentation to grow in the absence of oxygen.
What are the 2 gram + obligate aerobes?
Nocardia, bacillus cereus.
What are 2 acid-fast obligate aerobes?
mycobacterium and nocardia
Under what conditions does the mycoplasma survive?
It is a facultative anaerobe.
Name 2 energy parasites.
Chlamydia and rickettsia steal ATP from their host.
Name 5 obligate aerobe gram neg. bacteria.
neisseria, pseudomonas, bordetella, legionella, and brucella.
What are 4 microaerophilic gram neg. bacteria?
The 3 spirochetes (treponema, borrelia, leptospira) and campylobacter.
Which gram neg. bacterium is an obligate anaerobe?
Name 7 facultative intracellular organisms.
1. listeria monocytogenes; 2. salmonella typhi; 3. yersinia; 4. francisella tularensis; 5. brucella; 6. legionella; 7. mycobacterium.
What causes pharyngitis, skin infections, scarlet fever, TSS and 2 antibody mediated sequelae?
streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep)
What are the 2 antibody-mediated sequelae from an S. aureus infection?
rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis.
What causes the following 3 neonatal infections: meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis.
streptococcus agalactia (Group B strep)
What can cause subacute bacterial endocarditis, dental caries, and brain or liver abscesses?
streptococcus viridans
What can cause pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, or otitis media (in kids)?
streptococcus pneumoniae
What are the 4 group D gram + cocci?
enterococci: S.faecalis and S. faecium; non-enterococci: S. bovis and S. equinus.
Which bacterium is closely associated with colon cancer?
streptococcus bovis
What group of bacteria cause subacute bacterial endocarditis, biliary tract infections, and urinary tract infections?
the group D cocci.
Which bacterium leads to exotoxin dependent gastroenteritis (food poisoning), toxic shock syndrome, and scalded skin syndrome?
staphylococcus aureus
Through direct invasion, which bacterium leads to pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, acute bacterial endocarditis, septic arthritis, skin infection, sepsis, and UTI?
staphylococcus aureus
Which bacterium is largely responsible for nosocomial infections in prosthetic joints, heart valves, sepsis from IV lines, and UTI?
staphylococcus epidermidis
What is a common cause of UTI in sexually active women?
staphylococcus saprophyticus
What are the 2 spore-forming gram + rods?
bacillus and clostridium
Which disease and bacterium causes the following symptoms: painless black vesicles on the skin, Woolsorter's disease in the lungs, and abdominal pain with vomiting and bloody diarrhea?
Anthrax, caused by bacillus anthracis.
Which bacterium's only clinical presentation is food poisoning?
bacillus cereus
Baby presents with constipation and flaccid paralysis. What could be the cause?
Infant botulism, caused by clostridium botulinum
Adult presents with cranial nerve palsy, muscle weakness and respiratory paralysis. What could be the cause?
Food-born botulism caused by clostridium botulinum
What are potential reservoirs of C. botulinum?
soil, stored vegetables, smoked fish, fresh honey
Someone presents with some or all of these symptoms: muscle spasms, lockjaw, risus sardonicus, respiratory paralysis. What's going on?
Tetanus, due to clostridium tetani.
Which bacterium causes gaseous gangrene?
Clostridium perfringens
Patient presents with diarrhea following extensive antibiotic treatment. Possible explanation?
clostridium difficile
Presentation: mild sore throat with fever, pseudomembrane on pharynx, neural involvement. Some patients with this infection present with myocarditis. Diagnosis?
Diptheria following infection of corynebacterium diphteriae.
This bacterium is responsible for neonatal meningitis, meningitis in immunosuppressed patients, and septicemia.
Listeria monocytogenes
Which is the only gram + organism with LPS?
Listeria monocytogenes
Why are spirochetes a diagnostic problem?
They cannot be cultured in ordinary media and are too small to be seen under a light microscope.
What are the 3 genera of spirochetes?
1. treponema 2. borrelia 3. leptospira
Do spirochetes release toxins?
No, manifestations are caused by the host's own immune responses.
Which spirochete causes syphilis?
treponema pallidum
What are the stages of syphilis?
primary, secondary, latent, and third.
What are the 3 categories of tertiary syphilis?
1. gummatous syphilis; 2. cardiovascular syphilis; 3. neurosyphilis.
Most acute meningitis infections caused by bacteria lead to a high neutrophil count, high protein, and low glucose. Name 2 bacteria that cause subacute meningitis with a predominance of lymphocytes.
treponema pallidum and mycobacterium tuberculosis
What is tabes dorsalis?
Caused by syphilis, this involves damage to the posterio columns and dorsal roots of the spinal cord
What is the syphilis rule of sixes?
6 axial filaments, 6 week incubation, 6 weeks for ulcer to heal, 6 weeks after ulcer heals secondary syphilis develops, 6 weeks for secondary syphilis to resolve, 66% of latent stage patients have resolution, 6 years to develop tertiary syphilis
What is condyloma latum?
A painless, wart-like lesion which occurs mostly in warm, moist sites like the vulva or scrotum. Found in second stage syphilis.
What is the Jarisch-Herxheimer phenomenon?
A self-limiting reaction developed by syphilis patients after starting antibiotics. Symptoms include mild fever, shills, malaise, headache and muscle aches. Caused by pyrogen released by killed organism.
Which bacterium causes Lyme Disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi
What are 3 vectors for the borrelia burgdorferi?
ixodes tick, white-footed mouse, and white-tailed deer
What is the erythema chronicum migrans?
the signature rash of the ixodes tick bite and borrelia burgdorferi infection
What are the 4 organ systems affected by Lyme disease?
skin, nervous system, heart and joints
What causes recurring fever in humans?
Borrelia recurrentis, transmitted by the body louse.
Why does the fever recur in recurring fever?
antigenic variation by the spirochete borrelia recurrentis
What are the signs of Weil's Disease and what causes it?
severe leptospirosis with renal failure, hepatitis (and jaundice), mental status changes and hemorrhage in many organs; caused by leptospira interrogans
What organism can be transmitted by direct contact with infected urine or animal tissue?
leptospira interrogans
Sign of primary stage syphilis?
painless chancre (skin ulcer)
Signs of secondary stage syphilis?
rash on palms and soles, condyloma latum (painless, wartlike lesion occurring in warm, moist places), occasional involvement of the CNS, eyes, bones, kidneys or joints
Signs of tertiary stage syphilis?
gummas of skin and bone, CV syphilis, neurosyphilis
What is bejel and what is its cause?
primary and secondary lesions in oral mucosa, tertiary lesions are gummas of skin and bone; caused by T. pallidum, subspecies endemicum
What is yaws and what is its cause?
primary and secondary lesions are ulcerative skin lesions near site of infection, tertiary lesions include gumma of skin and bone with severe facial disfigurement; caused by treponema pertenue
What is pinta and what is its cause?
flat red or blue lesions which do NOT ulcerate, caused by treponema carateum