Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
spontaneous generation
living organisms are generated by non-living organisms
Girabino Fracastoro
1536--Came up with the idea that small living things cause disease
1600's--created the first microscope and was able to see micro-organisms in cheek cells
Did the experiment with the 3 jars and flies. Jar #1 was unsealed, jar #2 was sealed, and jar #3 was gauzed. This was the first experiment that refuted the idea of spontaneous generation.
John Needham
1749--took chicken broth, boiled it, corked it, and wanted to see if anything would grow by boiling. This should have killed everything but he kept taking the cork off=contamination!
Louis Pastcur
Boiled chicken broth in swan-necked bottles. Micro-organisms would settle in the neck but not in the bottle. The growth occurred in the liquid trap.
Kock's Postulate
thought that some of Pastcur's could be disease.

1. The suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts.
2. The agent must be healthy and live outside the host
3. When the agent is introduced to a healthy, susceptable haot, the host must get the disease
4. The same agent must be reisolated from the diseased experimental host
What is a prokaryote?
has no nucleus
What are the 2 types of prokaryotes?
1. Archea-cell wall that contains no peptidoglycan
2. Bacteria-cell wall that contains peptidoglycan
What are the 2 ways to classify bacteria?
1. Gram +
2. Gram -
Describe a Gram + cell.
It contains a thick cell wall so when the safranine is added in the staining technique, it enters the cell but can't leave after it binds inside and turns purple.
Describe a Gram- cell.
Has a thinner cell wall and when safranine is added, it turns red.
What shape can Gram + cells be?
1. cocci-round
2. baccili-oblong
What shape can gram- cells be?
1. cocci-round
2. baccili-oblong
3. spiral-curl
If a cell is gram + baccili, what types of categories can it form?
1.spore forming
2.non-spore forming
Aerobic cells
need oxygen, means they utilze an elctron transport chain to produce H2O
Anaerobic cells
oxygen is toxic to the organisms
can tolerate oxygen but don't use it

ex. in soil or bottom of ocean
Faciltative anaerobes
will use oxygen if it's available but if not, they'll substitute
0-20oC; found in soil, water, at poles
20-45oC some of these will make you sick (body temp is at 37oC)
above 45-90oC
hyperthermophiles or extremophilic
90-120oC; almost always archea
the use of enzymes (usually bacterial)for the degradation of hazardous waste
-toxic waste
-TNT & explosives

important to the future of preventing sickness
viruses that attack bacteria