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55 Cards in this Set

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Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase:
Utilizes NADP to phosphorylate and remove Hydrogen ions from Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield NADH+H and 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
removes a phosphate from 1,3-bisphpsphoglycerate and adds the phosphate to ADP to yield ATP and 3-Phosphoglycerate
Converts 3-Phosphoglycerate to 2-Phosphoglycerate
Removes one molecule of H2O from 2-Phosphoglycerate to yield Phosphoenolpyruvate
Pyruvate kinase:
removes a phosphate and adds one hydrogen ion to Phosphoenolpyruvate to yield one ATP from ADP and Pyruvate
Distinguishing Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells are:
1. Circular DNA not in a membrane
2. No membrane bound compartments (organelles)
3. No Histone proteins associated with DNA
4. Cell walls almost always contain peptidoglycan
5. Most often divide by binary fission
Distinguishing characteristics of eukaryotic cells are:
1. Membrane bound nucleus
2. DNA of chromosomes associated with Histones
3. Possess mitotic apparatus, mitochondria, ER, and sometimes chloroplasts
a bacterial cell's typical size range is ____ to ____ in diameter and ____ to ____ in length.
0.2mm to 2.0mm in diameter

2mm to 8mm in length
The general term for substances surrounding bacterial cells is ______ which is made up of polysaccharides, peptides or both.
Organized, tightly attached glycocalyx is called:

An unorganized and loosely attached glycocalyx is called:
a capsule

a slime layer
1. Isotonic:
2. Hypotonic:
3. Hypertonic:
1. Equal solute concentrations on both sides of membrane
2. Lower solute concentration outside the cell
3. Higher solute concentration outside the cell
permeases are proteins involved in ______ diffusion, which requires a _______ _______.
concentration gradient
Active transport requires a _____ ______ and energy provided by _____.
Carrier protein
ATP hydrolysis
_______ replicate independantly of the bacterial chromosome
Yeast cell walls contain the polysaccharides _______ and _______.
glucan and mannan
an the cytoplasm of Eukaryotic cells the _______, _______, and ________ are collectivly refered to as the cytoskeleton
intermediate filaments
DNA bound to histones is called a ________.
When the cell is not reproducing, DNA and associated proteins are a visable mass called ________.
The function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum is:
Synthesize, store, and transport proteins and lipids
The Golgi complex recieves proteins and lipids from the ER and delivers them to _______ _______ for export from the cell.
Secretory vessicals
The Kreb's cylcle (or TCA or Citric acid cycle) takes place:
In the mitochondrail matrix or the innermost compartment of the mitochondrian.
membrane enclosed spheres containing powerful digestive enzymes are called ______.
Do bacteria have a sexual reproduction cycle?
No, but they transfer DNA fragments (plasmids) via their sex pili.
Define the two types of metabolism.
Anabolism- biosynthetic reactions that require energy
Catabolism- degradative reactions that yeilds energy
Define the two types of metabolism.
Anabolism- biosynthetic reactions that require energy
Catabolism- degradative reactions that yeilds energy
Do bacteria have a sexual reproduction cycle?
No, but they transfer DNA fragments (plasmids) via their sex pili.
Define the two types of metabolism.
Anabolism- biosynthetic reactions that require energy
Catabolism- degradative reactions that yeilds energy
the suffix -ase is used to denote an _______.
oxidase is an enzyme that:

hydrogenase is an enzyme that:
adds oxygen
removes hydrogen
a cofactor is:
a nonprotein component of some enzymes required for enzymatic activity
cofactors that are metal ions or organic molecules are called:
In the electron transport chain, H+ are pumped from the _______ into the _______ of the mitochondria.
intermembrane space
four important coenzymes derived from vitamines are:
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

Coenzyme A (CoA)
Factors influencing enzymatic activity are:
substrate concentration
a substance that competes with the normal enzyme substrate for the active site of the enzyme:
competitive inhibitor
Noncompetitive inhibitors act by:
decreasing the ability of the normal substrate to combine with the enzyme by binding to the enzyme at a secondary site called the allosteric site. The process allosteric inhibition changes the shape of the enzymes active site, making it nonfunctional.
In some metabolic processes, the final product can be an inhibitor in a process called _______ ________.
Feedback inhibition (end-product inhibition)
Strands of RNA can be cut and spliced by special enzymes called:
Oxidation is:

Reduction is:
adding oxygen or removing electrons or hydrogen ions (H+)

removing oxygen or adding electrons or hydrogen ions (H=)
highly ______ compounds such as glucose, with many hydrogen atoms, contain much potential energy.
oxidative phosphorylation is:
the removal of electrons from organic compounds that are transferred in a sequence down an electron transport chain to a final electron accepter such as oxygen, releasing energy in the process to be used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP.
substrate level phosphorylation is:
does not require oxygen or any other final electron acceptor, but rather phosphorylates a molecule (such as ADP to ATP) by the direct transfer of a high-energy phosphate from another molecule (such as an intermediate metabolic compound)
Glucose is broken down to ________ by the process known as _______.
glycolysis is the first stage of both _______ and _______.
_____ ATP are needed to start glycolysis and ______ ATP are produced.
4 ATP (which is a net of 2 ATP gained)
Glycolysis takes place in ________.
the cytoplasm
The ATP generated by glycolysis are formed by ________ phosphorylation.
substrate level
How many reactions are there in glycolysis?
hydrolyzes one ATP molecule to convert Glucose to Glucose-6-phosphate.
are enzymes that convert a molecule into a diffrent isomer of that molecule.
are enxymes that add or remove phosphates from molecules
Phosphoglucose isomerase:
converts Glucose-6-phosphate to Fructose-6-phosphate
hydrolyzes one ATP to convert Fructose-6-phosphate into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
splits Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into one molecule of Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and one molecule of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
Triose phosphate isomerase:
Converts Dihydroxyacetone phosphate to Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate