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127 Cards in this Set

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Peptidoglycan
macromolecule found only in bacteria that provides rigidity to the bacterial cell wall. The basic structure is an alternating series of two subunits NAM and NAG crosslinked by peptide chains.Responsible for retaining the staining preparation
fermentation
metabolic process in which the final electron acceptor is an organic compound.
respiration
sum total of metabolic steps in the degradation of foodstuffs when the electron acceptor is an inorgnic compound.
pyruvate
end product of glycolysis; a precursor metabolite used in the synthesis of amino acids
endospores
a kind of resting cell, characteristic of a limited number of bacterial species; highly resistant to heat, radiation, and disinfectants.
cytoskeleton
dynamic filamentous network that provides structure and shape to eukarotic cells
bacterial morphology
shapes
cocci - round
rods - e coli
cocobacilli - roundish
vibrios - curves, commas
spirilla- wavy
spirochetes - corkscrew
pleomorphic - many shapes
cell wall constituents
peptidoglycan in bacteria
candle jars
an environment with increased levels of CO2. O2 is used up by candle.
obligate aerobes grow
obligate anaerobes don't grow
viruses
acellular or non-living agent composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.
viroids
An agent. a piece of rna that does not have a protein coat but does replicate within living cells.
Prion
infectious protein that has no nucleic acid.
bioremediation
process that uses microorganisms to degrade harmful chemicals.
spontaneous generation
descredited theory that organisms can arise from non-living matter.
microscope lens
objective and ocular lenses
oil objective
the high power objective lens that can be used with oil to get less light refraction
selective media
culture medium that inhibits the growth of certain microorganisms and therefore favors the growth of desired microorganisms.
enriched media
culture media that provides conditions to enhance the growth of one particular organism in a mixed population.
differential media
culture media that contain certain ingredients such aas sugars in combination with pH indicators; used to distinguish among organisms based on their metabolic rate.
stock cultures
culture stored for use as an inoculum in later procedures
pasteurization
process of heating food or other substances under controlled conditions of time and temperature to kill pathogens and reduce the total number of microorgansisms without damaging the substance.
nosocomial
infection acquired during hospitalization
growth curve
growth pattern observed when cells are grown in a closed system; consists of 4 stages. lag, log, stationary, death.
sterilization
process of removing all microbes
disinfection
remove all disease-carrying organisms. leave normal flora behind.
simple stains
staining technique that employs a basic dye to impart color to cells
gram stain
staining technique that divides bacteria into 1 of 2 groups, gram + or gram (-), on the basis of color; correlates with cell wall structure.
acid fast stain
procedure used to stain certain microorganisms, particluarly members of the genus mycobacterium that do not readily take up dyes.
flagella
in prokaryotic cells, a long protein appendage composed of subunits of flagellin that provides motility. In eukaryotic cells, a whiplike appendage composed of microtubules.
psychrophiles
microorganism that grows best
between -5 and 15C
mesophiles
bacteria that grow most rapidly at temperatures between 20 and 45 C.
thermophiles
organism with an optimum growth temperature between 45 and 70 C.
obligate aerobes
organisms with an absolute requirement for oxygen
obligate anaerobes
organisms that cannot multiply if O2 is present; they are often killed by traces of O2 because of its toxic derivatives
facultative anaerobes
organism that grows best in the presence of oxygen, but can grow in its absence
microaerophiles
organisms that require small amounts of oxygen(2-10%) for growth, but are inhibited by higher concentrations.
major elements
Iron, Magnesium, Oxygen
Carbon, Calcium
Phosphorous, Potassium
bacteriocidal
able to kill bacteria
pure culture
a population of organisms descended from a single cell.
nomenclature
system of assigning names to organisms; a component of taxonomy
genus species
first name, last name
pseudomonas
gram negative rods that are motile by polar flagella and often produce pigments.
autoclave temperature
121C
dry heat
method of destroying microorganisms.
Direct heat - flame
Ovens
moist heat
method of destroying microorganisms.
fast reliable inexpensive
boiling
pasteurization
autoclaves
retort (kills botulism)
ATP
the energy currency of a cell, serving as the ready and immediate donor of free energy.
oxidation reduction
chemical reaction in which one or more electrons is transferred from one molecule to another; the compound that loses electrons becomes oxidized and the chemical that gains electrons becomes reduced.
glycolysis
metabolic pathway that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate, generating atp and reducing power.
membrane filtration
a technique used to determine the number of bacteria in a liquid sample that has a relatively low number of organisms; concentrates bacteria by filtration before they are plated.
enzyme
a protein that functions as a catalyst
catalysts
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being altered or depleted in the process.
decolorization
method of removing the dye from gram negative, but not gram positive bacteria.
old cultures
?
streak plate method
simplest and most commonly used technique for isolating bacteria; a series of successive streak patterns is used to dilute inoculum.
pour plate method
method of inoculating an agar medium with bacteria while the agar is liquid and then pouring it into a petri dish, where the agar hardens; the colonies grow both on the surface and within the medium.
endospore stain
heat method of staining dormant cells from the gram positive family. stains the cell purple and leaves a clear halo.
binary fission
asexual process of reproduction in which one cell divides into two independent daughter cells.
substrates
substance on which an enzyme acts to form products. Surface on which an organism will grow.
products
what a substrate is converted into.
feedback inhibition
inhibition of the first enzyme of a biosynthetic pathway by the end product of that pathway
treponema pallidum
also known as syphillus, detected in a flourescent antibody test.
van Leeuwanhoek
developed early microscope. saw animicules
Redi
disproved the theory of spontaneous generation. used maggots.
pasteur
founder of microbiology
swan necked flasks
infusion broths
aseptic technique
how many people have microorganisms killed?
more than all wars combined
why are microorganisms vital to life
convert nitrogen
produce oxygen
degrade organic waste
economic applications
beer, wine, cheese production
degrade toxic pollutants
biotechnology
biomediation (oil spills)
genetic engineering
introduce genes from one organism to another organism giving it new properties
medically important products
interferon, insulin, blood clotting factors (streptochynase)
new diseases
Aids, Sars, Toxic Shock, west Nile Virus, Lyme Disease
Old diseases
small pox, malaria, dyptheria
chronic disease
peptic ulcers (heliobacter pylori)
good bacteria
E. Coli synthesizes vitamin K in the intestines
Prokaryotic
bacteria and archae
no true nucleus
rigid cell wall
single-celled
3 domains
prokaryotes
eukaryotes
archae
prions cause what diseases
Kuru - from eating monkey brain
chronic wasting disease
mad cow disease
dementia
Name some eukarya
algae
fungi
protozoa
helminthes
how do bacteria multiply
binary fission
what are some basic stains
methylene blue
malachite green
Gram Stain
Crystal Violet
Iodine
Alcohol
Safranin
name one application of the gram stain
cerebrospinal fluid
what type of cell wall does mycobacterium have
waxy and tough
name steps in acid fast stain
carbol fuschin
alcohol
methylene blue
capsule stain
not done in hospitals
what bacteria is a spore stain done on?
Anthrax. bacillus anthracis
What dyes are used in a spore stain
malachite green
safranin
two types of flagella
polar flagella - on end
peritrichous - all around
2 diseases that flourescent dyes are done for
tuberculosis, gonorrhea
3 types of cocci groupings
chains, packets, clusters
what makes up the cell wall peptidoglycan of gram positive bacteria
NAM and NAG held together by glycan strands
Teichoic acids and Lipoteichoic acids
part of the gram positive cell wall that are negatively charged and get rid of bacteria.
components of gram (-) cell wall
thin cell wall
periplasm
outer membrane
porins
components of gram (+) cell wall
thick cell wall of peptidoglycan
lots of NAM and NAG strands
teichoic acid
lipotoic acid
glycocalyx
general name for a capsule
how does penicillin work on bacteria
binds to NAM and NAG sites and prevents synthesis of peptidogylcans by not allowing cross linkage of the strands.
peritrichous flagella
flagella surrounding the organism
fibrae
assists organisms to attach to wall, secretes adhesive, adheres
sex pilli
male bacteria structure which transfers genetic material to female bacteria
plasmids
extra genetic material in bacteria
gas vesicules
internal structure that makes the bacteria buoyant.
exocytosis
getting rid of unneeded stuff
endocytosis
eukaryotic cell takes up material from surrounding environment, surrounds material, puts it in a vesicle, then phagocytosis.
colony
a population of organisms that descended from a single cell, therefore separated from other species.
agar
solid media made from algae and nutrients like glucose
Name the temperature that agar melts and solidifies
melts 95oC
solidifies 45oC
Source of energy for algae, fungi, protozoa
sunlight, organic compounds, organic compounds
turbidity
cloudiness of a solution
photoautotrophs
energy from the sun and CO2 for carbon source
lyophilized
freeze dried
what type of plate is used to tell lactose (+) or (-)?
MacConkey plate
name 2 things about a MacConkey plate
it is both selective and differential
sterilants
destroy all microorganisms, even endospores
what metal is used in sterilization
silver
List 3 approaches to control of microorganisms
filtration
radiation
chemicals
heat
what 2 components make up metabolism
catabolism
anabolism
catabolism
breaks down glucose and synthesizes ATP
anabolism
utilized the energy stored in ATP to synthesize amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids.
what are the components of the metabolic pathways?
enzymes
ATP
electron carriers
what do enzymes do?
function as biological catalyst, accellerating the conversion of one substance, the substrate into another the product.
activation energy
the energy it takes to break chemical bonds
how does an enzyme catalyze a reaction
by lowering the activation energy
why are electron carriers important
to synthesize ATP and to keep the process going.
how many atp does glycolysis net?
2 atp
tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
oxidizes glucose, yeilds 2 ATP
oxidation phosphorylation
syntesizes ATP
aerobically 34
anaerobically 32
fermentation
most wanted process by laboratory workers.
used by organisms that cannot respire.
what is a differential selective media for detecting lactose
MacConkey and EMB