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29 Cards in this Set

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What are the main structures of Fungi?
Eukaryotic, contain Chitin, they are dimorphic
Genetics in Fungi
Gene exchange during meiosis gives diversity, contain introns and exons
Reproduction in Fungi
generally via modified hyphae that form reproductive spores
sexual:fusion of haploid nuclei
asexual: binary fission, budding, fragmentation of hyphal elements, spores
what happens as a result f fragmentation of hyphal elements?
arthrospores formed directly from hyphal fragmentation;
chlaymdospores formed from directly hyphal fragmentation, but surrounded by a thick wall
blastophores
spores formed directly from "mother" cell from budding
Physiology of Fungi
aerobic, asorptive nutrition, most mesophilic, pH optimum around 5.5
Why are Fungi important?
they are saprophytic, they decompose; they are symbiotic, such as w/lichens; they are important commerically in the food industry
Chytridiomycota (Fungi)
globe-shaped cells with rhizoids, sexual and asexual, saprophytic decomposers, parasitic
Oomycota (Fungi)
egg fungi or water molds
morphology: finely branced hyphal filaments w/cellulose
sexual/asexual; sexual w/eggs
parasitic: tobacco blue mold
saprophytic aquatic decomposers
Zygomycota (Fungi)
zygosporangium-forming fungi
mycelial, sexual reproduction via zygospores, asexual w/spores
saprophytic decomposers, used commercially i.e. contraceptives, meat tenderizers
Ascomycota (Fungi)
sac fungi, dimorphic, sexual ascospores, asexual conidiospores
saprophytic decomposers in soil, morels are edible, one is used to make LSD.
Basidiomycota (Fungi)
Club Fungi, dimorphic, sexual reproduction by basidospores, asexual by budding, fragmentation and spores.
saprophytic decomposer in soil, parasitic at times
Deuteromycota (Fungi)
Fungi imperfectii, mycelial with septate (perforated), branched hyphae, asexual conidiospores, no observed sexual
penicillin: cheese formation etc.
ATPsynthase
membrane-bound molecule which "uses" the protein-gradient to form ATP.
antenna pigments
membrane/protein-associated that collect light energy, then transfer excitons to reaction center pigments by inductive resonance
Structure of Archaea
Prokaryotic
Membranes w/ETHER linkages in lipid
Cell Wall, Ribosomes, Chromosomes, plasmids, granules, capsules, flagella
Cell wall of Archaea
gram positive or gram negative; lacks petidoglycan
pseudopeptidoglycan instead
polysaccharide: thick polymersmannose, galactose, etc.
glycoprotein and protein
glycoprotein
found in archaea, negatively charged proteins with many acidic residues "decorated" with polymers of glucose, glucoseamine, mannose, galactose, ribose and arabinose
Ribosomes in Archaea
more like eukaryotes than bacteria
small RNA/protein particles
DNA in Archaean Chromosomes
have 1/3 to 1/2 the DNA that a bacterial chromosome would in E.Coli
Genetics in Archaea
Gene Exchange by plasmids bia transduction
Operons most like present
Introns like in Eukarya
RNA polymerases that behave like Eukarya
Reproduction in Archaea
asexual via binary fission, budding, and fragmentation
Physical requirements of Archaea
temperature- most thermophiles
oxygen- aerobic or anaerobic
pH- many "prefer" acid conditions
salts- some extreme halophiles
Absorptive Nutrition of Archaea
some require growth factors
organotrophic
lithotrophic
phototrophic- synthesize ATP using a bacteriorhodospin system
Metabolism of Archaea
use TCA cycle and electron transport system(halophiles, thermophiles)
ATP synthesis via chemiosmotic mechanisms and substrate-level phosphorylation
Extreme Thermophiles
Thermoplasma, Sulfolobus, temperature optima >50C
Metanogens (archaea)
generally found in anaerobic environments rich in organic matter
Importance of Archaea
Reduced carbon souirce
symbionts (i.e. rumen of cattle)
saprophytic (decomposers)
Geology of the Earth
inner core- cystalline iron and nickel
outercore- liquid layer: molten iron, oxygen and sulfur
mantle- semi-liquid layer of Si, Al, Mg
crust- solid layer of mainly silicates