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43 Cards in this Set

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How to avoid food intoxication or infection: (4 things you should do)
1. wash your hands with soap
2. separate cutting boards for meat vs. vegetables
3. cook meat till internal temp is 160-165 degrees F
4. put food in fridge to prevent bacterial growth
What is an intoxication?
-bacteria make toxin
- toxins ingested with food or water
- short incubation time (1-3 hours)
What is an infection?
- live bacteria ingested with food or water
- bacteria grow inside (intestines, etc)
- long incubation time (1-3 days)
Causative agent of Botulism?
- Clostridium botulinum, G+, anaerobic spore former
- spores found normally in human or animal intestines
Transmission of Botulism?
- in anaerobic environments
Pathogenicity of Botulism?
- spores germinate in anaerobic environment
- leads to growth of vegetative cells and production of botulism toxin (900 kD)
- Toxin blocks release of acetylcholine
Symptoms of Botulism?
toxin in bloodstream lethal:
slurred speech, flaccid paralysis, difficulty swallowing, respiratory paralysis
Treatment and prevention of Botulism:
antitoxin; prevent by heat foods to 90 degrees celsius for 10 minutes

WOUND Botulism
Botox blocks what?
Acetylcholine from nerve cells
Botox can be used for what? (3)
Strabismus: crosseyed
Blepharospasm: clenched eyelids
Spasticity: multiple sclerosis
Staphylococcus aureus causes what? What is the key reservoirs? Characteristics?
- causes staphylococcal food poisoning
- G+ cocci, salt tolerant
- key reservoir is nose and skin
Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus?
meats, fish dairy products via sneezing or boils or abscesses
Pathogenicity of Staphylococcal Food Poisoning?
Incubation period?
- heat resistant enterotoxin
- binds nerves in intestine, causes brain to send signal for vomiting and intestinal water secretion (diarrhea)
- incubation period very short 1-6 hours
Treatment of Staph. food poisoning
No treatment; immune system takes care of it
Causative agent of Salmonellosis?
- hundreds of serotypes of Salmonella
i.e. S. typhimurium, heidelberg, newport, enteritidis
- G- rods
Transmission of Salmonellosis?
poultry, eggs (in ovaries of hens), cutting boards, iguanas and easter chicks
Pathogenicity of Salmonellosis?
- incubation period of 1-3 days
- inflammatory response to infection increases fluid secretion
Symptoms of Salmonellosis?
nausea, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps
Treatment of Salmonellosis?
none- bacteria eaten by macrophages
if serious, treat with ciprofloxacin
Causative agent of Typhoid fever?
Salmonella typhi, G- rod
- lives in sewage, water and food
- can live in stomach acid
Transmission of Typhoid fever (Five F's)
fingers, food, flies, feces, fomites
Typhoid mary
Pathogenicity of Typhoid fever?
only pathogenic to humans
invades tissues in small intestines cutting up the intestines (ulcers)
Symptoms of Typhoid fever?
ulcers, bloody stools (dysentery);
- lead to blood invasion and go to brain that causes delerium (typhos)
- rose spots on abdomen (hemorrhaging)
Treatment of Typhoid fever?
Chloramphenicol, some become carriers and need gall bladder surgery to remove it
Causative agent of cholera?
Vibrio cholera, G-, curved rod
Transmission of Cholera?
- Water or food contaminated with feces
- raw oysters
Symptoms of Cholera?
- diarrhea (1L/hour)
- dehydration, cramps
- blood thickens, shock/coma
- 70% mortality
Pathogenicity of Cholera?
enterotoxin stimulates fluid loss
Treatment of Cholera?
antibiotics and ORS (oral rehydration solution of electrolytes and glucose)
What does ORS stand for?
Oral rehydration solution like Gatorade and Pedialyte
Transmission of E. Coli diarrheas?
- ground meat
- inadequately washed fruits and veggies
- low infectious dose = lots of toxins produced
Pathogenicity of E. Coli diarrheas?
dehydration, salt imbalance by various mechanisms: enterotoxin and enteroinvasive (penetration of intestinal epithelium)
Enteroinvasive mechanism of E. Coli bacteria leads to these types of diarrheas: (2)
Infant diarrhea: caused by both enterotoxic and enteroinvasive
Traveler's diarrhea- E. Coli adhere with pili and produce enterotoxin
What does O157:H7 mean?
Specific type of E. Coli
O means cell wall antigen
H means flagellar antigen
Symptoms of E.Coli?
Diarrhea and other things...
Treatment and Prevention of E.Coli diarrheas?
- antibiotics and rehydration
- prevention by cooking meat at 160 C
Complications of E. Coli diarrheas?
- hemorrhagic colitis if confined to large intestine: inflammation of large intestine
- hemolytic uremic syndrome if spread to kidneys - kidney failure, seizure, coma, heart attack
Causative agent of Peptic Ulcer Disease?
Helicobacter pylori
Transmission of Peptic Ulcer Disease?
contaminated food and water, houseflies in feces
Pathogenicity of Peptic Ulcer Disease?
- gets through mucus of stomach lining and attaches to stomach wall
- secretes urease to digest urea, neutralize stomach acid therefore higher pH
- bacteria secrete toxins to make ulcers
Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer Disease?
Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease?
Biaxin (clarithromycin), Prilosec (omeprazole), Tetracycline
Diagnosis of Peptic ulcer disease?
Urea breath test:
- labeled urea given to patient, urease breaks up urea into NH3 and CO2(labeled), exhalation has labeled CO2