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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Staph aureus
3 exotoxins:

1. TSST (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin):
-stimulates helper T cells to release IL-2==>toxic shock

2. Enterotoxin
-food poisoning via preformed antigen

3. Scalded Skin Syndrome Toxin
-protease cleaves protein in tight jxns of skin
-Protein A binds Fc of IgG==>no complement activation

*Penicillin G
-if resistant to Pen G, give B-lactamase-resistant penicillin like ampicillin/nafcillin
-if resistant to those, give Vanc
what causes endocarditis on prosthetic heart valves
Staph epidermidis
Strep pyogenes
-infxns and pathogenesis
*M protein inhibits phagocytosis


1. Cellulitis:
-Hyaluronidase ("spreading factor") mediates subcutaneous spread

2. Scarlet fever
-Erythrogenic toxin (superantigen) causes rash


1. Rheumatic fever
-Anti-M protein Ig cross-reacts w/heart tissue==>damages heart

2. Acute glomerulonephritis
*ImCo (formed by Ag-Ig complexes) deposit in kidney

==>activate complement

Tx: Penicillin G
Tx strep
Penicillin G
Enterococcus faecalis
-what does it cause
-UTI, biliary tract infxn
-endocarditis (rare)

-habitat: colon, but can infect urethra or female genital tract

-Dx: grows in 6.5% NaCl and hydrolyzes eschulin in the presence of bile

-Tx: Penicillin/Vanc + aminoglycoside like Gentamicin
grows in 6.5% NaCl and hydrolyzes eschulin in the presence of bile
Enterococcus faecalis
Strep pneumo
-causes what dz
-causes pneumonia & meningitis (adults)
-causes otitis media (kids)

-polysaccharide capsule retards phagocytosis (anti-polysaccharide Ig opsonizes the bug)
-IgA protease secretory IgA on respiratory mucosa==>allows colonization

-QueLLUNG rxn ("sweLLUNG" of capsule when administer type-specific antiserum)
-growth inhibited by bile and optochin (vs. Strep viridans)

VAX: There are two VAX:
1. Adults: contains capsular polysaccharide of 23 serotypes that MC cause d
2. Babies <2 y/o: capsular polysaccharide of 7 serotypes
coupled to carrier protein (diptheria toxoid)
Tx: Pen G
Quellung rxn
mneum: QueLLUNG="sweLLUNG of capsule" when administer type-specific antiserum Ig

Strep pneumo
strep viridans
-cause what dz
-habitat and transmission
-how prevent
-cause endocarditis
-habitat: oropharynx; transmitted to blood stream during dental procedures
-prevent: give Pen G before dental procedures to ppl w/damaged heart valves
what Rx give to ppl with damaged heart valves before dental procedures?
Pen G
Neisseria meningitidis
-habitat & transmission
Habitat: URT, transmitted via respiratory droplets

-Endotoxin==>septic shock
-no known exotoxin
-IgA protease (degrades secretory IgA==>allows colonization)

-Dx: ferments maltose ("M"eningitidis ferments "M"altose)--vs Neisseria gonorrohoea
Neisseria gonorrhoea
-Dx: oxidase+ on Thayer Martin medium
-do not ferment maltose (vs. N meningitidis)

-ceftriaxone for uncomplicated cases
-add Tetracycline for urethritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
-Tx newborns' eyes w/erythromycin ointment or silver nitrate to prevent conjunctivitis
oxidase+ on Thayer Martin medium
Neisseria gonorrhoea