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99 Cards in this Set

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peptidoglycan
-fxn
-chemical composition
fxn=
-gives rigid support
-protects against osmotic damage

structure=sugar backbone with peptide side chains
cell wall/cell membrane of G+:

-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=major surface protein

-chemical composition-
teichoic acid
==>induces TNF and IL-1
in bacterial infxns, what induces TNF and IL-1?
G+: teichoic acid in bacteria's cell wall/membrane

G-: Lipid A in lipopolysaccharide in outer membrane
G- outer membrane
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=major surface Ag
-chemical composition=Lipid A in lipopolysaccharide
==>induces TNF and IL-1
plasma membrane
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=site of oxidative and transport enzymes

-chemical composition=lipoprotein bilayer
ribosome
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=protein synthesis

-chemical composition=50S and 30S subunits
periplasm
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=space b/w inner cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane in G-

-chemical composition=contains hydrolytic enzymes, i.e. B-lactamases
capsule
-fxn=protects ag phagocytosis

-chemical composition= polysaccharide
(except Bacillus anthrasis: D-glutamate)
pilus
[same info as for fimbriae]

-fxn
*adherence of bact to cell surface
*sex pilus connects two bacteria during conjugation

-chemical composition=
glycoprotein ("You need sugar and protein for good sex")
fimbriae
[same info as for pilus]

-fxn
*adherence of bact to cell surface
*sex pilus connects two bacteria during conjugation

-chemical composition=
glycoprotein ("You need sugar and protein for good sex")
fragellum
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn-motility
-chemical composition-protein ("you need protein to move around")
spore
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=protects against dehydration, heat, and chemicals

-chemical composition=
*keratin-like coat
*dipicolinic acid
plasmid
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=contains genes for antibiotic resistance, enzymes, & toxins

-chemical composition=DNA
glycocalyx
-fxn
-chemical composition
-fxn=mediates adherence to surfaces, esp foreign surfaces

-chemical composition=polysaccharide
IgA proteases
-fxn
-found in which organisms
allows some organisms to colonize foreign surfaces:

S pneumo
H flu
N men
N gon
which bugs do not Gram-stain well?

what stains do you use insted?
mneum: "These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color":

T=Treponemes (too thin to be visualized on G stain)
==>use darkfield microscopy or flourescent Ig stain
R=Ricketssia (intracellular, so can't see on G stain)
M=Mycobacteria (i.e. tb, high lipid-content cell wall requires acid-fast stain)
==>use acid-fast stain
M=Mycoplasma (can't see b/c no cell wall)
L=Legionella (can't see b/c primarily intracellular)
==>use silver stain (Nehman;s mneum: "Legionarre" wearing all her silver)
C=Chlamydia (can't see b/c intracellular & lacks muramic acid in cell wall)
bacterial growth curve: stages?
1. Lag stage=metabolic w/o no cell division

2. Log stage=rapid ce;l divison (proliferation)

3. stationary stage=nutrient depletion slows growth

4. death phase=prolonged nutrient depletion + buildup of waste products==>death
superantigen
-desc
-what bugs
superantigen binds directly to MHCII and TCR
==>activates lots of T cells
==>T cells release lots IFN-gamma and IL-2

1. Staph aureus:
*TSST-1==>Toxin Shock Syndrome (fever, rash, shock)
*Enterotoxin==>food poisoning

2. Strep pyogenes (GAS)
*scarlet fever-erythrogenic toxin==>toxic shock-like syndrome
toxin: Staph aureus
Staph aureus:
*TSST-1==>Toxin Shock Syndrome (fever, rash, shock)
*Enterotoxin==>food poisoning

It's a type of superantigen. Superantigens bind directly to MHCII and TCR
==>activates lots of T cells
==>T cells release lots IFN-gamma and IL-2;

other superantigen is Strep pyogenes (GAS)
toxin: Strep pyogenes
Strep pyogenes (GAS)
*scarlet fever-erythrogenic toxin==>toxic shock-like syndrome

It's a type of superantigen. Superantigens bind directly to MHCII and TCR
==>activates lots of T cells
==>T cells release lots IFN-gamma and IL-2;

-other superantigen is Staph aureus
ADP ribosylating A-B toxins
-desc
-what bugs
-interferes w/host cell fxns

1. "B" ("B"inding) component binds receptor on host cell membrane
==>endocytosis

2. "A" ("A"ctive) component "A"ttaches ADP-ribosyl to host cell protein (ADP ribosylation)
==>alters host protein fxn

Bugs:
1. B. pertussis (whooping cough)
*stimulates AC
*inhbiits chemokine receptor
==>leukocytosis

2. Cholera:
ADP ribosylates Gs protein
==>activates AC
==>increased pumping of Cl- and H20 into gut
==>voluminous rice-water diarrhea

3. Cornyebacterium diphtheriae:
inactivates Elongation Factor EF-2 (~pseudomonas exotoxin A)
==>pharyngitis, pseudomembrane in throat

4. E. coli:
*Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) stimulates AC ("A") in gut (cholera-like mechanism)
==>watery diarrhea
*Heat-Stable Toxin (ST) + GC ("G"; Guanylate Cylase)

mneum: "Labile like the "A"ir; Stable like the "G"round"
Cholera toxin
ADP ribosylating A-B toxin:

1. "B" ("B"inding) component binds receptor on host cell membrane
==>endocytosis

2. "A" ("A"ctive) component "A"ttaches ADP-ribosyl to host cell protein (ADP ribosylation)
==>alters host protein fxn

Bugs:
1. B. pertussis (whooping cough)
*stimulates AC
*inhbiits chemokine receptor
==>leukocytosis

2. Cholera:
ADP ribosylates Gs protein
==>activates AC
==>increased pumping of Cl- and H20 into gut
==>voluminous rice-water diarrhea

3. Cornyebacterium diphtheriae:
inactivates Elongation Factor EF-2 (~pseudomonas exotoxin A)
==>pharyngitis, pseudomembrane in throat

4. E. coli:
*Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) + AC ("A")
*Heat-Stable Toxin (ST) + GC ("G"; Guanylate Cylase)

mneum: "Labile like the "A"ir; Stable like the "G"round"
B. pertussis toxin
ADP ribosylating A-B toxin:

1. "B" ("B"inding) component binds receptor on host cell membrane
==>endocytosis

2. "A" ("A"ctive) component "A"ttaches ADP-ribosyl to host cell protein (ADP ribosylation)
==>alters host protein fxn

Bugs:
1. B. pertussis (whooping cough)
*stimulates AC
*inhbiits chemokine receptor
==>leukocytosis

2. Cholera:
ADP ribosylates Gs protein
==>activates AC
==>increased pumping of Cl- and H20 into gut
==>voluminous rice-water diarrhea

3. Cornyebacterium diphtheriae:
inactivates Elongation Factor EF-2 (~pseudomonas exotoxin A)
==>pharyngitis, pseudomembrane in throat

4. E. coli:
*Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) stimulates AC ("A") in gut (cholera-like mechanism)
==>watery diarrhea
*Heat-Stable Toxin (ST) + GC ("G"; Guanylate Cylase)

mneum: "Labile like the "A"ir; Stable like the "G"round"
E. coli toxin
ADP ribosylating A-B toxin:

1. "B" ("B"inding) component binds receptor on host cell membrane
==>endocytosis

2. "A" ("A"ctive) component "A"ttaches ADP-ribosyl to host cell protein (ADP ribosylation)
==>alters host protein fxn

Bugs:
1. B. pertussis (whooping cough)
*stimulates AC
*inhbiits chemokine receptor
==>leukocytosis

2. Cholera:
ADP ribosylates Gs protein
==>activates AC
==>increased pumping of Cl- and H20 into gut
==>voluminous rice-water diarrhea

3. Cornyebacterium diphtheriae:
inactivates Elongation Factor EF-2 (~pseudomonas exotoxin A)
==>pharyngitis, pseudomembrane in throat

4. E. coli:
*Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) stimulates AC ("A") in gut (cholera-like mechanism)
==>watery diarrhea
*Heat-Stable Toxin (ST) + GC ("G"; Guanylate Cylase)

mneum: "Labile like the "A"ir; Stable like the "G"round"
Cornyebacterium diphtheria toxin
*exotoxin encoded by Beta-prophage
*potent exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis via ADP ribosylation of EF-2
*Dx: see metachromatic granules

mneum:
"ABCDEFG":
ADP ribosylation
Beta-prophage
Cornye
Diphtheriae
Elongation Factor
Granules (metachromatic)

ADP ribosylating A-B toxin:

1. "B" ("B"inding) component binds receptor on host cell membrane
==>endocytosis

2. "A" ("A"ctive) component "A"ttaches ADP-ribosyl to host cell protein (ADP ribosylation)
==>alters host protein fxn

Bugs:
1. B. pertussis (whooping cough)
*stimulates AC
*inhbiits chemokine receptor
==>leukocytosis

2. Cholera:
ADP ribosylates Gs protein
==>activates AC
==>increased pumping of Cl- and H20 into gut
==>voluminous rice-water diarrhea

3. Cornyebacterium diphtheriae:
inactivates Elongation Factor EF-2 (~pseudomonas exotoxin A)
==>pharyngitis, pseudomembrane in throat

4. E. coli:
*Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) stimulates AC ("A") in gut (cholera-like mechanism)
==>watery diarrhea
*Heat-Stable Toxin (ST) + GC ("G"; Guanylate Cylase)

mneum: "Labile like the "A"ir; Stable like the "G"round"
Clostridium perfrigngens toxin
alpha toxin (lecithinase)
==>gas gangrene
==>double zone hemolysis on blood agar
double zone hemolysis on blood agar
C. perf
C. tetani toxin
*exotoxin

-blocks release of the inhibitory aa glycine
==>spastic paralysis; "lockjaw"
C. botulinum toxin
*preformed, heat-labile toxin

-blocks release of Ach at NMJ
==>flaccid paralysis
Bacillus anthracis toxin
one toxin in the toxin complex is an AC
Shigella toxin
Shiga toxin (also produced by E coli O157:H7)
==>cleaves host rRNA
==>enhances cytokine release==>HUS
S. pyogenes toxin
Streptolysin O is an hemolysin;

antigen for ASO Ig in acute rheumatic fever
Endotoxin
-desc
-heat stable or labile?
-effects in body
Endotoxin=LPS (*Lipid A) in G- cell wall
-heat stabile

1. activates Macs
==>incr IL-1==>fever
==>incr TNF==>fever, hemorrhagic tissue necrosis
==>incr NO==>hypotension, shock

2. activates alternative complement pathway
==>C3a: hypotension, edema
==>C5a: neutrophil chemotaxis

3. activates Hageman factor==>DIC
-which Neisseria ferments glucose only?
-which Neisseria ferments maltose?
N. "G"onococcus="G"lucose only
N. "M"eningitidis="M"altose (and glucose)
bacteria w/yellow pigment
Staph aureus ("aureus"=gold in Latin)
bacteria w/blue-green pigment
Pseudomonas
bacteria w/red pigment
Serratia marcescens

(mneum: think of red maraschino cherries)
how culture H. flu
chocolate agar w/factors V (NAD) and X (hematin)
chocolate agar w/factors V (NAD) and X (hematin)
H. flu
what bact causes lymphocytosis
Bordatella pertussis
swarming motility
Proteus
urease-producing
H pylori
Proteus
Thayer-Martin media
media used to isolate

Neisseria gonorrhoea
Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
media used to isolate

B. pertussis ("B"="B")
Tellurite plate
media used to isolate

Cornye diphtheriae
Loffler's media
media used to isolate

Cornye diphtheriae

(imagine Dr. Lafer w/pseudomembrane on throat==>makes her voice annoying)
blood agar=media used to isolate what bact?
media used to isolate

Coryne diphtheriae
Lowenstein-Jensar agar=

media used to isolate
M. tb
pink colonies on MacConkey's agar
(they turn pink on MacConkey's if they ferment lactose)

thus, E coli or Klebiella
charcol yeast extract buffered w/incr iron & cysteine

=media used to isolate
"L"egionella (cysteine= "L"-cysteine)
Sabourad's agar=media used to isolate
fungi
media used to isolate

H flu
chocolate agar w/factors V (NAD) and X (Hematin)
media used to isolate

N. gonorrhea
Thayer-Martin
media used to isolate

B. pertussis
"B"ordeaut-gengou (potato) agar

(="B" pertussis)
media used to isolate

C. diphtheriae
*blood agar
*Tellurite plate
*Loffler's medium (imagine Dr. Lafer w/pseudomembrane on throat==>makes voice annoying)
media used to isolate

M. tb
Lowenstein-Jensen agar
media used to isolate

E. coli
MacConkey's agar (contains lactose, so E coli and Klebsiella turn pink)
media used to isolate

Klebsiella
MacConkey's agar (contains lactose, so E coli and Klebsiella turn pink)
media used to isolate

Legionella
charcoal yeast agar w/incr iron and cysteine

(mneum: cysteine= "L"-cysteine="L"egionella)
media used to isolate

fungus
Sabouraud's agar
congo red stain
amyloid;

apple-green birefrigence in polarized light (d/t Beta-pleated sheets)
Giemsa stain
Borrelia
Chlamydia
Plasmodium
trypanosomes
PAS stain
PAS=Periodic Acid-Shift

Dx Whipple's ("WHIP-PASS")

stains glycogen, mucopolysaccharides
Ziehl-Neelsen stain
acid-fast bacteria
India ink
Cryptococcus neoformans
silver stain
Fungi
PCP
Legionella (Nehman: "Legionarre" wearing all her silver)
transformation
-desc process
-types of cell (prok, euk)
-nature of DNA transferred
naked (purified) DNA fragments from one bacterium are taken up by competent bacteria

-types of cell: prok or euk (eg human)
-any DNA transferred

(famous experiment:
-inject heat-killed gene fragments of smooth encapsulated Strep pneumo (which usu kill mice) + rough non-encapsulated (which don't kill)
==>mouse dies, find smooth encapsulated bad guys
==>thus, rough bacteria transformed into virulent encapsulated smooth bacteria
transduction
-transfer process
-types of cells involved
-nature of DNA transferred
-transfer process=phage-mediated transfer of DNA from one bact to another

-types of cells involved: prokaryotes

-nature of DNA transferred:
any DNA in generalized transduction;
specific DNA in specific transduction

Ridic Simple, p. 16:
-bacteriophages resemble most viruses in that they have capsid (~head) containing DNA/RNA

1. Adsorption: phage by its tail fibers to specific receptors on bact's cell surface

2. Penetration: phage sticks its tail fibers (like a needle) into the bact; inject DNA from capsid (head) thru the "needle" into the bact

3a. "VIRULENT PHAGES"
==>LYTIC CYCLE (always with "virulent phages"): injected DNA takes over host bacterium's
RNA polymerase
==>transcribes phage DNA-->mRNA
==>bacteria fills with new phages until it gets so full that it lyses

==>GENERALIZED TRANSDUCTION (always with "virulent phages"):
-the new phages sometimes accidentally get some of the host's DNA inside, i.e. gene for AB resistance and can then inject into another bacterium (this is more efficiency that transformation b/c DNA protected by capsid)

==>Lysogenic cycle (always w/"temperate phages"):
Rather than creating mRNA, phage integrates its DNA into bacterial chromosome. Later, it becomes activated, and then it enters lytic cycle (produces mRNA and lyses the host)

==>SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION
(always w/"temperate phages"):
in lysogenic cycle, phage DNA became incorporated into host's DNA. When enter lytic cycle, splice out the phage DNA, but can take some of the host DNA that surrounds the phage (thus "specialized") with it
==>incorporate host DNA into new phages
transduction
-transfer process
-types of cells involved
-nature of DNA transferred
-transfer process=direct cell-to-cell DNA transfer via sex pilus
-types of cells involved=prok or euk
-nature of DNA transferred= plasmid or chromosome

Ridic Simple, p.19:
-"conjugate"~"conjugal" (sex)
-note: a plasmid is ds circular DNA that is separate from bact DNA
-one bacterium must have self-transmissable plasmid (F plasmid). [Bacteria that contains F plasmid=F+ donor cell, which transfers its F plasmid to F- recipient cell.]
-F plasmid contains gene that contains enzymes and proteins to form sex penis (sex pilus)
-as one of the two strands of F plasmid is transferred across sex pilus, the donor and the recipient bact each adds complementary bases to each single strand.
==>sex pilus breaks, donor and recipient each have ds F plasmid

Possible abnl=
-rarely, the extra-chromosomal F plasmid can become integrated into bacterial chromosome
==>bacteria is then called Hfr cell (High frequency of chromosomal recombinations)

-Now, either:
1. entire Hfr cell (chromosome + plasmid) undergoes nl conjugation with F- cell (transfer entire Hfr cell)

2. excise the integrated F plasmid from chromosome, but accidentally take part of the chromosome around it==>this new plasmid w/some of chromosome="F prime plasmid"
Hfr plasmid
Possible abnl during transduction (Ridic simple, p. 17)

-rarely, the extra-chromosomal F plasmid can become integrated into bacterial chromosome
==>bacteria is then called Hfr cell (High frequency of chromosomal recombinations)

-Now, either:
1. entire Hfr cell (chromosome + plasmid) undergoes nl conjugation with F- cell (transfer entire Hfr cell)

2. excise the integrated F plasmid from chromosome, but accidentally take part of the chromosome around it==>this new plasmid w/some of chromosome="F prime plasmid"
transposition
-transfer process
-types of cells involved
-nature of DNA transferred
transposons=mobile genetic elements

-transfer process=DNA transfer to same/another chromosome or plasmid within a cell

-types of cells involved=prok or euk

-nature of DNA transferred=DNA sequences ("jumping genes")

Ridic simple (p. 21):
-transposons insert themselves in phage or plasmid DNA
==>when excised, often take part of host chrom with them and then give that to subsequent cells it integrates into
lysogeny
genetic code for bacterial toxin encoded into a lysogenic phage

Botulinum toxin
Cholera toxin
Diphtheria toxin
Erythrogenic toxin of GAS
obligate aerobes
"Nagging Pests Must Breathe"

N=Nocardia
P=Pseudomonas "AER"ugonosa ("AER"obe)
M=Mycoplasma tb (it loves the lungs b/c highest pO2)
B=Bacillus
obligate anaerobes
-eg
-where nl
-pathogenesis
-eg Actinomyces
Bacteroides
Clostridium

-nl in GI tract, abnl everywhere else

-they lack superoxide dismutase, thus susceptible to oxidative damage

-aminogly"O2"sides ineffective b/c req "O2" to enter cells
facultative anaerobes
"Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY"

S=Salmonella
N=Neisseria
B=Brucella
M=Mycobacterium
Li=Listeria
F=Francisella
L=Legionella
Y=Yersinia pestis
G+ rods w/metachromatic granules
Coryne diphtheriae
protein capsule
Bacillus anthracis

(the only bact w/protein [not polysaccharide] capsule]
Actinomyces
=Actinomyces israelii

G+ rod forming long branches resembling fungi

-nl oral flora
-causes oral/facial abscesses w/"sulfar granules" that can drain thru sinus tracts in skin

Tx: Penicillin
Nocardia asteroides
G+ rod

-causes pulm infxn in immuno-s pts

Tx: sulfa (makes sense; Tx PCP (infxn in imm-s pts) w/trim-SULFA)
N. gonorrhea causses
-gonorrhoea
-PID
-septic arthritis
-neonatal conjunctivitis
what bug causes Waterhouse-Friderichson syndrome
N. men
H. flu
-what does it cause
-desc
Ha"EMOP"hilus causes "EMOP":

Epiglottitis
Meningitis
Otitis media
Pneumonia

note: Strep pneumo is MCC of "MOPS" (which includes MOP from above + Sinusitis)

-produces IgA protease
-VAX: contains type B capsular polysaccharide conjugated (sex pilus) to diphtheria toxoid or other protein
red current jelly sputum
Klebisella (alcoholic and diabetics)
Klebsiella
think "AAA":

A=Alcoholics (and diabetics)
A=Aspiration pneumonia
A=lung Abscess
lung abscess
Klebsiella
aspiration pneumonica--what bug
Klebsiella
Yersinia enterocolitica
-transmitted from:
*pet feces
*contaminated milk
*pork

-outbreaks in day-care centers
-can mimic Crohn's or appendicitis
outbreaks in day-care centers
Yersinia enterocolitica
contaminated seafood
-what bug
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio vulnificus
reheeated meat dishes--
what bug
C perf
what causes bloody D
Campylobacter jejuni (MCC D)
C diff
EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E coli)
EIEC (Enteroinvasive E coli)
Shigella
Salmonella
Yersinia enterocolitica
Entamoeba histolytic (protozoan)
what causes watery D
-ETEC (EnteroToxigenic E coli=traveler's D)

-vibrio cholera (rice WATER stools)

-viruses (i.e. If your CAT has D, ROTate the litter box or SHIP his ASS to NORway)
Protozoa (in imm-s; Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
what bact are cAMP inducers
1. Cholera (Cholera turns the "on" on: ADP-ribosylates Gs)

2. Pertussis (Pertussis turns the "off" off: ADP-ribosylates Gi)

3. E coli

4. Bacillus anthracis
undulating fever
Brucella

comes from:
-animal contact
-dairy products (makes sense: dairy comes from cow, an animal)
tick bite==>
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme dz)
Francisella (rabbit; deer0
clue cells
Gardnerella (green discharge, fish smell)

(clue cells are vaginal epithelial cells covered w/bact)
Weil-Felix rxn
tests for anti-Ricketssial Ig

*Rocky Mtn spotted fever (Rickettsia ricketssiae)
*typhus (Rickettsia typhus)
lacks muramic acid
chlamydia
FTA-ABS
Ig against treponemes (eg syphilis)