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168 Cards in this Set

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What are the two parts of the respiratory system?
(1)upper (2)lower
What is the upper respiratory system?
the nose and thorat including the middle ear and auditory tubes
NAME
is the nose and the throat including the middle ear and auditory tubes
upper respiratory system
NAME
the mucous traps dust and microrganisms and cilla assist in moving these to the throat for elimaniation
upper respiratory system
What defenes mechanism does the upper respirartory system have?
Mucous can trap dust and microorganisms. Cill assist in moving this debree to the throat for elimanation
What is the lower respirartory system? (4)
(1)the larynx (2)trachea (3)bronchial tubes (4)lungs
the larnyx is the (1)
voice box
The trachea is your (1)
windpipe
the pharnyx refers to ones (1)
throat
The eustachian refers to ones (1)
auditory tubes
Another name for ones auditory tubes are (1)
eustachian
What are the lungs made up of?
(1)alveoli (2)pleura
NAME
is made up of the alveoli and pleura
lungs
What is alveoli?
air sacs in lung tissue where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
NAME
are air sacs in the lung tissue where oxygen and carbon dioxoide are exchanged
alveoli
What are pleura?
are double membrane around the lungs
NAME
is a double membrane around the lungs
pleura
What are the defense mechanisms for the lower respiratory system?
macrophages in the alveoli destroy many pathegons and anitbodies in the moccus, saliva and tears help, too
NAME
macophages in the alveoli destroy many pathegons and anitbodies in the moccus saliva and tears help, too.
defense mechansims of the lower respiratory system
What are normal mircobiota of the respiratory system?
there are a number of potentially pathogenic microbes but competition keeps them in check
What are the normal microbes of the lower respiratory system?
is nearly sterile bc of the cillary escualtor
NAME
is nearly sterile bc of the cillary escualtor
normal microbes of the lower respiratory system
What are two ways that microbes get into the lower respiratory system?
(1)Mucus is produced by goblet cells of a mucous membrane that traps many of microorganisms that enter the respiratory tract (2)Cilla move synchronously and propel dust and microbes that have been trapped by the mucus upward to the throat
(1) sychnronously and propel dust and mircobes that have been trapped by the mucus upward to the throat
cilla
(1)is produced by the goblet cells of a mucous membrane that traps many mircoorganisms that enter the respiratory system
mucus
What are 6 different types of the upper respiratory system?
(1)Pharyngitis (2)Laryngitis (3)Tonsillitis (4)Tonsillitis (5)Sinusitis (6)Epiglottitis
What is Pharyngitis?
a sore throat
NAME
a sore throat
Pharyngitis
What is Laryngitis?
an infected larynx
NAME
is an infected larynx
Laryngitis
What is tonsillitis?
is inflamed tonsils
NAME
is inflamed tonisls
tonsillitis
What is Sinusitis?
an infected sinus
NAME
is infected sinus
Sinusitis
What is Epiglottitis?
is an inflammation of a flap-like structure of cartilage that prevents material from entering the larynx
NAME
is the inflammation of a flap-like structure of cartilage that prevents material from entering the larynx
Epiglottituis
What is Epiglottitus usally caused by?
Hib
What has happened to Epiglottius?
has decreased w vaccination
is Epiglottius fatal?
yes, possiply life-threatening within hours
What is croup?
is a condition caused by the inflammation of the upper airway leading to a charaterisitc barking cough
NAME
is a condition caused by the inflammation of the upper airway leading to a characterisitc barking cough
croup
Most croup is (1)
viral
In whom is croup more common? (2)
in childern born prematurely or those w narrowed upper airways
NAME
is common in children born prematurely or those w narrowed upper airways
croup
What is Streptococcal Pharyngitis?
strep throat
What microbe causes strep throat?
Streptococcus pyogenes (A or B-hemoltytic steptococci)
NAME
is caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (A or B-hemolytic streptococci)
strep throat
How is a person tested for strep throat? (3)
by indirect aggulation using microscopic latex particles coated w anitbodies (2)takes as little as 10 min (3)so senstive can detect asymptomatic carriers
What are the symptoms of strep throat?
(1)local inflammation (2)fever (3)usally tonsillitis and lymph node in enlargement in neck
NAME
symptoms include local inflammation, fever, usallytonsillitis, and lymph node enlargement in the neck
strep throat
How is strep throat transmitted?
respiratory secrections
NAME
is transmitted through respiratory secrections
strep throat
What is Scarlet fever?
is a infection by Streptoccocus pyogones strain that causes strep throat but also produces a toxin indicating lysogeny by a bacteriophage
NAME
is a infection by streptococus pyogenes strain that causes strep throat but also prodcues a toxin indicating lysogeny by a bacteriophage
Scarlet fever
What are the symptoms from toxins of Scarlet fever?
(1)skin rash that may peel (2) high fever (3)tongue has a strawberry apearance and then as it loses its upper membrane becomes very red and enlarged
NAME
symptoms include a skin rash that may peel, high fever, tongue has a strawberry-like appearance and then as it loses its upper membrane becomes very red and enlarged
Scarlet fever
How is Scarlet fever transmitted?
is thought to be associated w respiratory secretions but might be associated w a streptococci skin infection
NAME
transmission is thought to be associated w respiratory secretions but might be assoicated w a streptococci skin infection
Scarlet fever
What is Diptheria caused by?
Cormebacterium dipththeriae
NAME
is caused by Corynebacterieum diphtheriae
dptheria
What does the D stand for in the DTaP vaccine?
the D stands for an inacviated Diptheria toxoid that causes the body to produce antibodies against the diptheria toxins
NAME
a vaccine used against Diptheria and Pertussis
DTap
WHy to many adults lack immunity from Diphtheria?
bc there was no vaccine when they were little
a (1)shot is usally combined w the Diphtheria shot?
tetanus
What are the early symptoms of Diphtheria?
(1)sore throat, fever and chills (2)infections begins in throat but if toxin cirrculates the body, the heart and kidneys become affected (3)which can lead to heart faliure and paraylsis
NAME
early symptoms include sore throat, fever, and chills. The infection begins in the throat but if toxins circualte the body, the heart and kidneys become infected. This can lead to heart faliure and paralysis
Diptheria
What is a diagnostic feature of Diptheria?
gray leather like membrane forms in the throat that can block the passage of air
NAME
a diagnostic feature of this disease is a gray leather like membrane in the throat that can block the passage of air
Diphtheria
What is Otitis media?
infection of the middle ear or earache
NAME
is an infection of the middle ear or earache
Otitis media
What can cause Otitis media?
different bacteria that form pus which builds up against the eardrum (2)30% of the cases are caused by Streptococcus pneumonia
NAME
is caused by bacterium (30% of cases are from streptococcus pneumonia) pus that builds up against the eardrum
Otitis media
Why is the Otitis media effect most often childern?
bc the eustachian tubes are small and easily blocked
What are two home remidies that help w Otitis media?
(1)cod liver oil (2) selenium
Give two ex of viral diseases in the upper resiparetory system?
(1)common cold (2)rhinovirus
What is the common cold?
there is no cure but symptopms of the nasal sercretion and congestion can be reduced
What are some complications of the cold? (2)
Larygnitis (2)otitis media
NAME
there is no cure but symptoms of the nasal secretion and congestion can be reduced and some complications include larygnitis and otisis media
common cold
What is Bronchtis?
an infection affecting the bronchi
NAME
is an infection affecting the bronchi
Brocnhtis
What is Pnemuonia?
infection of the bronchi and Alveoli
NAME
is infection of the bronchi and Alveoli
Pneumonia
Pertussis is also called (1)
Whooping Cough
(1) is also called Whooping cough
Pertusis
What causes Whooping cough?
Bordetella Pertussia bacteria destroy the cillated cells in the trachea that prevents the movement of mucous by the cillated escaulator system causing the patient to desperatley try to cough up mucous membrane
NAME
is caused by Bordetella pertussia bacteria that destroy the cilliated cells in the trachea that prevent the movement of mucus by the cillated escualtor system
Whooping Cough
Why are patients having Whooping cough despertely want to caugh up mucusus secretions?
bc the Bordtella pertussia bacteria has destroyed the cillated cells in the trachea which preven the movement of the mucuous membrane by the cillated escaualtor system
What does the Ap stand for in the DTaP vaccine?
aP stands for whooping cough
What is one thing wrong w the DTaP vaccine?
suspected of causing neuroligcal complications
What causes Tuberculosis?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
NAME
is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tubercylosis
NAME
is a leading killer worldwide and the leading killer of HIV patients
Tubercylosis
Tubercylosis is the leading killer (1) and of (2) patients
(1)worldwide (2)HIV
Where do the symtpoms of Tuberulosis come from?
the bacteria itself
Does tuberclylsosi have toxins?
no
What causes Pneymoccoaial pneumonia?
Streptococcus Pneumonia
NAME
is caused by Streptococcus Pneumonia
Pneymoccoaial Pneumonia
What is lobar Pneumonia?
infection of the lobes in the lungs
NAME
is infection of the lobes in the lungs
lobar Pneumonia
NAME
is the most common typical pneumonia
lobar pnemumonia
What are the symptoms of Pneymoccoaial pneumonia? (3)
(1)high fever (2)breathing diffuclty (3)chest pain
Are there many carrier of Pneymoccoaial pneumonia?
yes
Is there a vaccine for Pneumonia?
yes
For (1), it is virulence dependent on the host's resistantce
Pneymoccoaial Pneumonia
What are the different types bacterial Penumonia? (3)
(1)lobar Pneumonia (2)Pneymoccoaial Pneumonia (2)walking pneumonia (3)Walking Pneumonia
What causes walking Pneumonia?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
What causes PAP?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
NAME
is caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
PAP
What is PAP?
Primary atypical pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumonia is the most common cause of (1)
PAP
What is walking Pneumonia?
the inward swelling of the alveoli resulting in pneumonia w/ out fluid in the lungs
NAME
is the inward swelling of the alveoli resulting in pneumonia w/out fluid in the lungs
walking Pneumonia
T or F
people w walking Pneumonia or PAP will respond to Penicillin
False
Why do people w walking Pneumonia or PAP not respond to Penicillin?
bc the bacteria mycoplasmas penumonia does not have a cell wall
How is PAP or walking penumonia transmitted?
by direct contact w aerosols
NAME
is transmitted by direct contact w aerosols (2)
walking penumonia or PAP
What can Viral Pneumonia be caused by?
as complications of influenza, measles, and other viral diseases
What is the most common viral Pneumonia?
RSV
What does RSV stand for?
Resipartory Synctial virus
RSV is caused by (1)
RSV
(1) is caused by RSV
viral pneumonia
NAME
is the most common viral respiretory disease in infants
RSV
RSV is the most common (1)
viral respiratory disease in infants
Who is viral pneumonia (caused by RSV) threatening for? (2)
(1)childeren under three who have no yet devolped the antibodies to fight it (2)the elderly
What are the symptoms for viral pneumonia caused by RSV? (2)
(1)coughing and wheezing lasing more than a week (2)transmission ocurs before symtopms devolop
NAME
symptoms include coughing and wheezing. In addition, transmission ocurs before symptoms devolop
viral pneumonia
is there a vaccination against viral pneumonia?
no
What are infants at risk for viral pneumonia given?
immunoglobin
What are patients given w viral pneumonia in order to reduce symtpoms?
Ribavrin
What is infleunza?
the flu
NAME
is the flu
influenza
The flu has enveolpes with two types of projections, what are they?
(1)hemaglutnin spikes (2)Neuramindase spikes
What does H spikes stand for?
hemaglutnin spikes
What does N spikes stand for?
Neuramindase spikes
NAME
is charactizred by having a envelope w H spikes and N spikes
Infleunza
What is the problem w treating influenza?
antibodies directed at the H and N spikes have vaired compostion, this allows for virus to evade estabilshed resistance
What is Antigenic drift?
changes in the enveolpe and minor variaions in the antigenic make up
NAME
is changes in the enveolpe and minor variations in the antigenic make up
Antigenic drift
What is Antigenic shifts?
is the recomboination of 8 RNA segments of viral genoome w the virus btwn animal and human strains
NAME
is the recomboination of RNA segements of viral genome w the virus btwn the animal and human strains
Antigenic shifts
What types of vaccines are used aginst the Influenza?(2)
annual vaccines like (1)Relenza and (2)Tamiflu
Relenza and Tamiflu are (1) vaccines
Influenza
What is SARS stand for?
Sudden acute Respiratory Sydrome
What are the symptoms of SARS?
fever, dry cough and troubling breathing
NAME
symptoms include fever, dry cough, and troubling breathing
SARS
How is SARS spread?
person to person
Where did the epidemic of SARS begin?
china
NAME
epdiemic begin in China
SARS
Have people died from SARS ?
no
Whom has SARS ocured in?
travlers
With whom are fungal disesaes in the lower repiratory system a problem for?
those that are immunosuppresed
(1) diseases can be a problem for people that are immunospuppresed
fungal
How does one get a fungal disease in the lower respiratory system?
when fungal spores are inhaled
What is Pnemuycositic Pneumonia caused by?
Pneumocystis carinii
NAME
is caused by Pneumocystis carnii
Pnemuycositis Pneumonia
T or F
Pneymocystis Carinii can be found in the lungs of a normal person
true
What happens to the lungs of people that get Pneumocytis Pneumonia?
the microbe invades the lining of the alvioli and the cysts and eventuall rupture releses the motile cells
NAME
the microbe invades the lining of the alvioli and the cysts and eventuall rupture releses the motile cells
Pneumocytis Pneumonia
is there treatment aviable for Pneumocytis Pneumonia?
yes
Give some ex of fungal diseases of the lower respiratory system?
(1)Pneumocytis Pneumonia (2) Histoplasmosis (3)Blastomycosis (4)Aspergillosis
What is Histoplasmosis?
comes from pathogens that grow in the soil esp if contaminated w bird droppings
Where is Histoplasmosis the most widespread?
Ohio an the Missisipi valley
NAME
is most widespread in Ohio an the Missisipi valley
Histoplasmosis
NAME
comes from pathogens that grow in the soil esp where there are bird droppings
Histoplasmosis
What is Blastomycosis?
Rare but serious and found in the Mississippi Valley where is grows in the soil
NAME
is rare but serious and found in the Mississippi valley where it grows in the soil
Blastomycosis
What is Aspergillosis?
is assocaiated w decaying vegetation such as in compost piles
NAME
is associated w decaying vegestion such as in compost piles
ASpergillosis