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99 Cards in this Set

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Respiration
Uses the reducing power accumulated in the Central Metabolic Pathways to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorilation
Nucleic Acid synthesis
Pyrimidines added to ribose5phosphate
Purines: Phosphate group joins to 5carbon, phosphate bond with 3carbon, phosphate of 5carbon and OH of 3 carbon form a phosphodiester bond
Amino Acid Synthesis
Need nitrogen which comes from ammonia
- Glutamate is rearranged to make many different amino acids
alpha ketoglutarate +NH4 --> glutamate + NH2
Fatty Acid Synthesis
Starts from acetylCoa and adds two carbons until right legth is achieved
Glycerol Synthesis
Synthesized from dehydroxyacetone phosphate
Reverse TCA
Green sulfur bacteria and archaea
Respiration
Uses the reducing power accumulated in the Central Metabolic Pathways to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorilation
Respiration
Uses the reducing power accumulated in the Central Metabolic Pathways to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorilation
Calvin Cycle Step One
CO2 enters and rubisco joins it to a 5 carbon compound - get 2 3phosphoglycerate
Calvin Cycle Step 2
There is an input of ATP and NADPH used to convert 3phosphogycerate to glyceraldehyde
Calvin Cycle Step 3
Use ATP to get 6 molecules ribulose 1-5 biphosphate
Calvin Cycle?
6 turns generate 1 6-carbon sugar
Consumes 12 NADPH and 18 ATP
Carbon Fixation
Convert CO2 to an organic form, consumes ATP and reducing power
CO2 --> Sugars
Purple Non-Sulfur
(Photoheterotrophs)
P870 (bottom of lake)
When needs reducing power uses electron donors from organics
Electron growth is anaerobic, electron reduction is aerobic
Photoautotrophs in lakes
Purple nonsulfur - p870
Green nonsulfur - P840
Cyanobacteria - P680
Anoxygenic Photosynthesis
purple and green bacteria
Occurs within the cytoplasmic membrane
Use bacteriochlorophylls, reversed electron transport, H2S or H2 as reducing power
Green uses 1, Purple uses 11
Oxygenic Photosynthesis
Plants, algae, cyanobacteria
occurs in the thylakoids, uses photosysten 1 and 2, there is noncyclic photophosphorillation, uses H20 as reducing power
Noncyclic System : Photosystem I and II
Occurs when cells produce both ATP and reducing power
Electron can go from reduced to oxidized spontaneously, can't start again until has another electron, so splits water to get one
P680-P700 most efficient
Purple and Green Sulfur bacteria: Cyclical System
Purple: light comes in and goes to a reduced state, then recycled down to pigment and goes back again to do photophosphorilation and make ATP
Green: light does the same thing but at a lower wavelength
*when it needs reducing power the e is given out
Photosystem II:
Energy comes in and goes to all chlorophylls, last is rxn center, goes to excited chloropyll, the electron goes from reduced to oxidized, electron carrier takes it to proton pump and H is expelled to form proton gradient
Tandem vs. Single Photosystem
Tandem is cyanobacteria and plants
Single is purple and green bacteria (more efficient)
Photophosphorilation
analogous to oxidative phosphorilation; electrons are excited by rxn center chlorophylls and pass to the ETC which generates the proton motive force
Thylakoids
The photosystems are embedded in the membranes of stacked structures called thylakoids which are located within the cell
Antennae Pigments
Make up the antennae complex which acts as a funnel to caputre energy of light and hten transfer to the rxn center pigments
Reaction Center Pigments
Function as electron donors in photosynthetic processes
The molecule emits an electron which is hten passed to the ETC
Accessory Pigments
Includes carotenoids - protects pigments when there is too much light
Mammals only use beta carotene
Phycobilins are unique to cyanobacteria to increase the efficiency of light capture
Bacteriochlorophylls
Absorb wavelegnths that are not absorbed by chlorophylls
Found in purple NS, green NS and purple S
Chlorophylls
found in plants, algae and cyanobacteria, htey are light capturing pigments
How do chemolithotrophs respire?
Use organics, electrons are picked up by NAD, fermentation gives pyruvate end product, if respiration then goes to ETC
*Always use O2 to make H20 at ETC
Do not require a source of carbon but incorporate CO2 to an organic form
Nitrifying Bacteria
One oxidizes ammonia to nitrite and one nitrite to nitrate
NH3 + 1/2O2 --> HNO2 +H20
HNO2 + 1/202 --> HNO3
*nitrobacter
Iron Bacteria
Oxidize reduced forms of iron
2Fe + 1/2O2 +H20 --> 2Fe + 2OH
gallionella
Sulfur Bacteria
Oxidize H2S
H2S + 1/2O2 --> H2O +S
Thiobaccillus
Hydrogen bacteria
Oxidize hydrogen gas
H2 + 1/2 O2 --> H20

Hydrogenomonas
Catabolism of Proteins
They are hydrolyzed by enzymes called proteases, which break peptide bonds that join amino acids
Proteins are broken down into amino acids and use the TCA cycle or bottom of glycolysis
Catabolism of Lipids
Hydrolyzed by lipases
Lipids are fed into glycolysis after fructose 6- phosphate
Catabolism of Polysaccharides and Disaccharides
Amylases digest these starches
All are fed into glycolysis to get glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate
Lactic Acid and Ethanol Fermentation
Lactic acid pyruvate is terminal electron acceptor to form lactate
Ethanol fermentation: pyruvate is converted to acetaldehyde, which accepts electron to form ethanol
Fermentation
Used when can't respire
Ex: lactic acid bacteria
Only ATP by substrate level phosphorilation in glycolysis
Uses pyruvate as terminal electron acceptor
ATP Yeild from aerobic respiration
Substrate level: 2ATP from glycolysis, 2ATP from TCA
Oxidative: 6ATP from reducing power of glycolysis
6ATP from transition step
22ATO from TCA
ATP Yeild of Oxidative Phosphorilation
For each pair electrons transfered 2-3ATP are generated
Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm, but the ETC is on the mitochondria
Glycolysis:2NADH->6ATP
Transition: 2NADH -> 6ATP
TCA: 6NADH -> 18ATP, 2FADH2 -> 4ATP
Anaerobic Respiration and ETC
Less efficient, uses nitrate as terminal acceptor producing nitrite then ammonia
ATP Synthase
Directly produces ATP by oxidative phosphorilation
Permits protons to glow back into the bacterial cell
One molecule ATP with every three protons
ETC and Respiration
The rotation of the flagella is powered by protons
Protons are pumped out at various points on the ETC, get higher concentration outside the cell but want to get back in, all controlled by ATP synthase
ETC: Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
In prokaryote it is located on the cytoplasmic membrane, in eukaryote is on the mitochondria
Carriers: flavoproteins, iron-sulfur, quinones, cytochromes
TCA: Step 1
COa transfers acetyl to initiate the cycle - forms citrate
TCA: STep 2
Citrate is rearranged to form isocitrate
TCA: Step 3
Isocitrate is oxidized and CO2 is removed, NADH IS GENERATED AND ALPHAKETOGLUTERATE IS FORMED
TCA: Step 4
Alpha ketogluterate is oxidized, CO2 is removed and CoA is added, producing SCoa
TCA Step 5
ATP is released when Coa is removed
TCA: step 6
Oxidation releases FADH2
TCA: Step 7
H20 is added to make molate
TCA: Step 8
Malate is oxidized to form oxaloacetate, and NADH is produced
TCA General
Used in aerobic and anaerobic, ATP produced later by oxidative phosphorilation, goes around twice
Transition Step
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Links the glycolysis to TCA
Prokaryotes in cytoplasm, eukaryotes mitochondria
CO2 is removed from pyrvate, oxidation occurs so NAD -> NADH, forms acetyl-CoA
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Breaks down glucose to generate 5 and 7 carbon sugars and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Intermediates are ribose 5-phosphate and erythrose 4-phosphate - can become DNA or RNA
GLycolysis Step 1
ATP is used to add phosphate group to glucose -> glucose 6-phosphate
Glycolysis Step 2
Chemical rearrangement to get fructose 6-phosphate
Glycolysis Step 3
ATP used to add another phosphate group -> fructose 1-6 biphosphate
Glycolysis Step 4
6 carbon split to get two 3carbon molecules DIHYDROXYACETONE 3-PHOSPHATE and G3P
Glycolysis Step 5
DHP converted to G3P
Glycolysis Step 6
The addition of a phosphate group is coupled by an oxidation, generating NADH and high energy phosphate bond
Glycolysis Step 7
ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorilation -> 3-phosphoglycerate is formed
Glycolysis Step 8
Chemical rearrangement to from 2phosphoglycerate
Glycolysis Step 9
Water removed leads to high energy phosphate bond -> phosphoendopyruvate
Glycolysis Step 10
ATP produced by substrate level phosphorilation
Glycolysis
1 glucose -> 2 pyruvate
2 ATP and 2 NADh
High energy phosphate bonds
When the bonds between the phosphate groups are hydrolyzed
ATP Enzyme
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
sugar ribose, nitrogen base, 3PO4
High energy phosphate bonds, used in anabolic pathways, released in catabolic pathways
Enzymes
Lower the amount of energy needed for the reaction to happen
Photosynthetics and chemoorganotrophs
Radient energy -> harvest and use it to synthesize organic compounds -> organic compounds are degraded by chemoorganotrophs -> generate ATP and produce ATP and CO2 and H20
Anabolism
use energy from ATP to assemble subunits of macromolecules making up the cell
Catabolism
Harvests energy during the breakdown of compounds and uses it to synthesize ATP
Substrate Level Phosphorilation
Intermediates with high energy phosphate bonds generate ATP
Used in glycolysis and the TCA cycle
*Uses energy released in exergonic reactions to add phosphate to ADP*
Fermentation
Have an organic, and takes the pyruvate, NAD picks up the electron but does not use the ETC; takes the pyruvate with the electron acceptor from NAD to make ethanol, only in glycolysis
ATP by substrate level
Anaerobic Respiration
Organic is converted to CO2, use NAD to take the electron to ETC, no O2 to take used organic so use NO3 and keep reducing it until have N2 - also called denitrification
Aerobic Respiration
Have organic and respires it and pulls off electrons to make CO2, electrons packed by NAD/NADH, NADH goes to ETC and gives off electrons
Electron is picked up by O2 to make H20
TCA Cycle
Accepts 2carbon Acetyl-CoA, releases 2CO2
Generates precursor metabolites used to make proteins
Transition Step
Removes CO2, generates reducing power, forms AcetylCoA, precursor metabolites used for lipids
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Breaks down glucose, generates precursor metabolites used in nucleic acids and protein synthesis, yeilds reducing power
Glycolysis
Also Embden-Meyerhoff, breaks down glucose to intermediates
Entner-Doudoroff -> generates pyruvate but uses different enzymes
Precursor Metabolites
anabolic PMs are building blocks to make macromolecules
Pyruvate: used to make proteins(alanine)
NAD, FAD, NADP (Names and Uses)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide -> 2 e 1 p
Flavin adenine dinucleotide -> 2 hydrogen atoms
NAD phosphate -> 2 e 1 p
Dehydrogenation vs. Hydrogenation
De: an electron and a proton are removed
Hy: an electron and a proton are added
Reducing Power
Reduced electron carriers because their bonds contain a form of usable energy
Electron Carriers
NAD+2e+2H -> NADH H, generates PMF
FAD -> FADH2
NADP -> NADPH, used in biosynthesis
Oxidative Phosphorilation
harvests the energy of pmf to make ATP, uses the ETC
Takes the electrons off all organics and breaks them down to get energy and CO2
Proton Motive Force
The electrochemical gradient established as protons are expelled from the cell
Reducing Power
Reduced electron carriers because their bonds contain a form of usable energy
Electron Carriers
NAD+2e+2H -> NADH H, generates PMF
FAD -> FADH2
NADP -> NADPH, used in biosynthesis
Oxidative Phosphorilation
harvests the energy of pmf to make ATP, uses the ETC
Takes the electrons off all organics and breaks them down to get energy and CO2
Proton Motive Force
The electrochemical gradient established as protons are expelled from the cell
Precursor Metabolites from Pentose Phosphate Pathway?
Ribose5Phospate -> nucleotides and amino acids
Erythose 5phosphate -> amino acids
Precursor Metabolites from Glycolysis?
Glucose6Phoshpate -> lipopolysaccharides
Fructose6Phosphate --> peptidoglycan
Dihydrokylacetone phosphate -> lipids
3phosphoglycerate ->amino acids
Phosphoenolpyruvate -> amino acids
Pyruvate -> amio acids
Transition Step precursor metabolites?
AcetylCoA ->lipids
TCA Precursor Metabolites
alphaketogluterate -> amino acids
oxaloacetate -> proteins
Precursor Metabolites from Pentose Phosphate Pathway?
Ribose5Phospate -> nucleotides and amino acids
Erythose 5phosphate -> amino acids
Precursor Metabolites from Glycolysis?
Glucose6Phoshpate -> lipopolysaccharides
Fructose6Phosphate --> peptidoglycan
Dihydrokylacetone phosphate -> lipids
3phosphoglycerate ->amino acids
Phosphoenolpyruvate -> amino acids
Pyruvate -> amio acids
Transition Step precursor metabolites?
AcetylCoA ->lipids
TCA Precursor Metabolites
alphaketogluterate -> amino acids
oxaloacetate -> proteins