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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 types of pathogens to worry about
extracellular bacteria, intracellular bacteria, viruses, parasites
two ways extracellular bacteria cause injury
toxins and induction of acute inflammation
how to combat extracellular bacteria
phagocytosis (mps and neutros), alternative complement pathway, cytokin production, humoral immunity (opsonization, classical complement)
How extracellular bacteria evade immune responses
inhibit/resist complement, antigenic variation
Two ways intracellular bacteria cause injury
cytopathic, also lead to exaggerated immune response which is injurious
how to combat intracellular bacteria
innate: cytokines to enhance phagocytic ability, NK cells; adaptive: cell mediated immunity
how do intracellular bacteria evade immune response?
mycobacteria: inhibit lysosome movement and phagolysosome fusion; listeria: hemolysin creates pores in phagosome; legionella: inhibit phagolysosome fusion
two ways viruses cause tissue injury
viral replication leads to cytopathic effects, host immune response kills infected cells
how to combat viruses
type I interferons to produce anti-viral state, NK cells, humoral imm (ab block viral binding, opsonization, complement), CTL response
how to viruses evade immune responses?
antigenic variation, suppression of immune responses
how to combat parasites
IgE/eos, CD4+, CTLs
parasite immune evasion
anatomic sequestration, antigen masking, biochemical changes in coat/cell wall, variations of surface antigens, shedding of antigenic coats, suppression of host responses
Five classes of vaccines:
attenuated and inactivated, subunit, synthetic antigen, live viral vector, DNA vaccines
how long is immune response to attenuated/killed vaccines?
short
purified macromolecule vaccines:
bacterial polysaccharide conjugated, toxoids, subunit, synthetic peptide