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31 Cards in this Set

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IN MICROBES, GROWTH =
AN INCREASE IN CELLULAR COMPONENTS, LEADING TO AN INCREASE IN CELL SIZE
WHAT DOES MICROBIAL GROWTH LEAD TO
MICROBIAL GROWTH LEADS TO AN INCREASE IN CELL #
IN MICROBIAL GROWTH, CELL SIZE INCREASES BY WHAT AMOUNT ( USUALLY)
2X THE ORIGINAL SIZE
IN PROCARYOTES, MICROBIAL GROWTH OCCURS BY
BINARY FISSION
DEFINE BINARY FISSION
BINARY FISSION IS AN INCREASE IN CELL SIZE ( USUALLY 2X)
LIST THE 4 STEPS INVOLVED IN BINARY FISSION
---DNA ATTATCHES TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF THE CELL AND IS REPLICATED
---(2) COPIES MOVE AWAY FROM EACH OTHER TO OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE CELL
---PM AND THE CELL WALL GROW INWARD IN THE CENTER OF THE CELL
---PM AND THE CELL WALL MEET TO SEPARATE CELL INTO TWO DAUGHTER CELLS THAT ARE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL
THE TIME IT TAKES TO COMPLETE BINARY FISSION ( PROCARYOTES MICROBIAL GROWTH) IS CALLED
GENERATION TIME
DEFINE GENERATION TIME
THE TIME IT TAKES PROCARYOTES TO COMPLETE BINARY FISSION AKA THE DOUBLING TIME
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A SHORT GENERATION TIME FOR BINARY FISSION OF PROCARYOTE CELLS
LESS THAN 20 MINUTES....E-COLI AND STAPH
MOST MICROBES GENERATION TIME IS ( IN BINARY FISSION OF PROCARYOTES)
1-3 HOURS IS THE AVG GENERATION TIME OF PROCARYOTES.
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A LONG GENERATION TIME OF BINARY FISSION IN PROCARYOTES
DAYS TO WEEKS ( MYCOBACTERIUM AND LEPRA=10 DAYS)
IN A LAB,,,BACTERIA ARE GROWN IN A
BATCH CULTURE
DEFINE A BATCH CULTURE AND GIVE AN EXAMPLE
A CLOSED CULTURE VESSEL EX. A TEST TUBE WITH A CAP
IN MICROBIAL GROWTH, A BATCH CULTURE ( CLOSED CULTURE VESSEL SUCH AS TEST TUBE W/A CAP) NEEDS TO HAVE A SET VOLUME EX. 3.5 MLS OF NUTRIENT BROTH
NOTE
IN MICROBIAL GROWTH LIST SOME OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS THAT MUST BE CONSTANT FOR GROWTH TO OCCUR
AN INCUBATOR IS USUALLY USED,,,CONSTANT TEMP (98.6 F),CONSTANT LIGHT, SHAKING ETC
A BATCH CULTURE CREATES
A PREDICTABLE PATTERN OF GROWTH
WHEN TALKING ABOUT BATCH CULTURES WHAT DOES THE TERM "VIABLE" MEAN
VIABLE MEANS THAT THEY HAVE METABOLIC ACTIVITY, AND THEY'RE ABLE TO REPRODUCE
WHAT IS THE FIRST PHASE AFTER AN INNOCULATION OF A BATCH CULTURE
THE LAG PHASE
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CELL # DURING THE LAG PHASE
LITTLE OR NO SIGNIFICANCE IN CELL # DURING THE LAG PHASE
GIVE TWO REASONS WHY THE LAG PHASE OCCURS
CELLS ARE ADJUSTING TO THERE NEW ENVIRONMENT
THE CELLS ARE SYNTHESIZING NEW CELL COMPONENTS
WHAT DOES SYNTHESIZING NEW CELL COMPONENTS MEAN
PREPARING TO DIVIDE
ANOTHER REASON THAT THE LAG PHASE OCCURS IS BECAUSE CELLS ARE REPAIRING DAMAGE FROM....
THE TRANSFER
LIST (4) REASONS WHY A "LONG" LAG PHASE MAY OCCUR
---POOR TRANSFER TECHNIQUE CAUSED EXCESSIVE DAMAGE
---DRAMATIC CHANGE IN TEMP ( TRANSFER FROM A WARM TUBE TO A COLD ONE)
---DRAMATIC CHANGE IN MEDIUM( NUTRIENT BROTH TO A SUCROSE MEDIUM)
---THE CELLS MAY BE OLD
IN MICROBIAL GROWTH,,,THE PERIOD AFTER THE LAG PHASE
EXPONENTIAL PHASE
DEFINE THE EXPONENTIAL PHASE
PERIOD OF MAXIMUM INCREAE IN CELL #
CELLS ARE MOST UNIFORM IN THIS PHASE, BEST FOR STUDY
EXPONENTIAL PHASE
THIS PHASE OCCURS AFTER THE EXPONENTIAL PHASE, AND THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN CELL #
THE STATIONARY PHASE
WHY IS THERE NO CHANGE IN CELL # DURING THE STATIONARY PHASE
---CELLS HAVE NO METABOLIC ACTIVITY BUT DON'T DIVIDE
---A BALANCE BTWN CELL DEATH AND CELL DIVISION
---
WHY DOES THE STATIONARY PHASE OCCUR
NUTRIENTS BECOME LIMITED ( THE GREATEST COMPETITION FOR NUTRIENTS IN THIS PHASE)
---WASTE BEGINS TO ACCUMULATE MAKING THE ENVIRONMENT INHOSPITABLE
DEFINE THE DEATH PHASE
THE FINAL PHASE OF BATCH CULTURE, EXPONENTIAL DECREASE IN CELL #,,,THE OPPOSITE OF THE EXPONENTIAL PHASE
WHY DOES THE DEATH PHASE OCCUR
COMPLETE LACK OF NUTRIENTS, WASTE ACCUMULATES TO TOXIC LEVELS, AND KILLS THE CELLS