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79 Cards in this Set

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(2) REASONS DNA IS IMPORTANT
---STORES INFO FOR STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACHTERISTICS OF MICROBE
---INFO IN DNA CAN BE REPLICATED AND PASSED TO OFFSPRING
DNA IS COMPOSED OF SUBUNITS CALLED ______________
NUCLEOTIDES
EACH NUCLEOTIDE HAS (3 ) COMPONENTS,,,THEY ARE....
---PHOSPHATE GROUP
---5 CARBON SUGAR
---NITROGENOUS BASE
5 CARBON SUGAR IN DNA =
DEOXYRIBOSE
5 CARBON SUGAR IN RNA =
RIBOSE
IN DNA...WHAT IS MISSING THAT CAUSES DEOXYRIBOSE
AN OXYGEN IS MISSING
NITROGENOUS BASE HAS HOW MANY POSSIBLE BASES
IN DNA (4) POSSIBLE BASES
IN DNA...WHAT ARE THE 4 POSSIBLE BASES
ADENINE---A
GUANINE---G

THYMINE---T
CYTOSINE--C
IN DNA,,,ADENINE AND GUANINE ARE KNOWN AS
PURINES
IN DNA....THYMINE AND CYTOSINE ARE KNOWN AS --------
PYRIMIDINES
IN DNA PURINES ARE SINGLE OR DOUBLE RING
DOUBLE RING
IN DNA PYRIMIDINES ARE SINGLE OR DOUBLE RING
SINGLE RING
RNA IS COMPOSED OF WHAT
ADENINE
GUANINE
CYTOSINE
URACIL
DNA IS COMPOSED OF HOW MANY STRANDS
DNA IS COMPOSED OF (2) STRANDS
BASE PAIRING IS ________ AND ____________
SPECIFIC AND COMPLIMENTARY
BASE PAIRING INCLUDES A ________ WITH A ____________
PURINE WITH A PYRIMIDINE
HOW MANY HYDROGEN BONDS DO A---T FORM
A--T FORM (2) HYDROGEN BONDS
HOW MANY HYDROGEN BONDS DO C---G FORM
C---G FORM (3) HYDROGEN BONDS
WHAT ARE BASE PAIRS HELD TOGETHER BY
BASE PAIRS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY HYDROGEN BONDS
DEFINE GENOME
ALL OF THE DNA IN AN ORGANISM ( THE ENTIRE SEQUENCE)
WHAT ARE THE TWO BASIC REGIONS OF GENOMES
GENES AND PROMOTERS
DEFINE GENES
A REGION OF DNA THAT IS TRANSCRIBED INTO A SINGLE MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) AND TRANSLATED INTO A SINGLE POLYPEPTIDE
A POLYPEPTIDE IS A ___________
PROTEIN
DEFINE PROMOTER
A NON TRANSCRIBED REGION OF DNA THAT CONTROLS GENE EXPRESSION
DEFINE GENE EXPRESSION
HOW OFTEN THE GENE IS USED TO CREATE THE PROTEIN
HOW DO WE GET FROM DNA TO PROTEIN ( 2 STEPS)
TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION
DEFINE TRANSCRIPTION
USE DNA TEMPLATE TO MAKE A COMPLIMENTARY DNA COPY
RNA COMPLIMENTARY =
A---U
C---G
DEFINE TRANSLATION
USE mRNA TO CREATE POLYPEPTIDE ( STRAND OF AMINO ACIDS). mRNA IS "READ" IN BLOCKS OF (3) NUCLEOTIDES CALLED A CODON. EACH CODON "CODES" FOR A SPECIFIC AMINO ACID
DNA IS DOUBLE STRANDED...EACH GENE USES ONE STRAND OF DNA TO ______ THE STRAND
SENSE
TRANSLATION ALWAYS STARTS WITH WHAT
AUG
AUG IS KNOWN AS THE
UNIVERSAL START CODON
TRANSLATION ENDS WITH
UAA
UAG
HOW DO WE GET THE SAME AMINO ACID FROM DIFFERENT CODONS
REDUNDENCY IN THE GENETIC CODE
HOW MANY POSITIONS DOES EACH CODON HAVE
EACH CODON HAS (3) POSITIONS
4 POSSIBLE NUCLEOTIDES = 64 POSSIBLE CODONS...BUT ONLY (20) AMINO ACIDS
NOTE
SOME AMINO ACIDS ARE "CODED FOR" BY MORE THAN (1) CODON ( UP TO SIX)
NOTE
PORTION OF mRNA PRIOR TO AUG ____________
5 UNTRANSLATED REGION OR 5UTR
HOW LONG IS 5 UTR
VARIABLE IN LENGTH
WHEN SHOULD 5 UTR BE PRESENT
ALWAYS PRESENT
5 UTR IS NECESSARY FOR _______
TRANSLATION
WHAT DOES 5 UTR ALLOW
5 UTR ALLOWS mRNA TO BIND TO RIBOSOMES
W/O 5 UTR....TRANSLATION WILL NOT AND CAN NOT OCCUR
NOTE
DEFINE GENETIC DIVERSITY
CHANGES IN THE DNA SEQUENCE LEADS TO GENETIC DIVERSITY..THIS ALLOWS MICROBES TO SURVIVE IN VARIED ENVIRONMENTS
(2) MECHANISMS TO CREATE GENETIC DIVERSITY
MUTATION
GENETIC RECOMBINATION
DEFINE MUTATION
A STABLE(PERMINANT) HERITABLE ( PASSED TO OFFSPRING) CHANGE IN DNA SEQUENCE
DEFINE NEGATIVE MUTATION
A CHANGE IN DNA SEQUENCE THAT IS HARMFUL TO THE ORGANISM...MAY EVEN BE LETHAL
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF NEGATIVE MUTATION
MUTATION THAT DESTROYS THE CAPSULE
DEFINE POSITIVE MUTATION
CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQUENCE THAT BENEFITS THE ORGANISM
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A POSITIVE MUTATION
A MUTATION THAT ALLOWS A MICROBE TO CREATE PENICILLANASE ( KILLS PENICILLAN SO...IT'S RESISTANT TO PENICILLAN)
DEFINE "SILENT MUTATION"
A CHANGE IN DNA SEQUENCE THAT DOESN'T AFFECT THE ORGANISM
WHY DOES SILENT MUTATION OCCUR
DUE TO THE REDUNDENCY IN THE GENETIC CODE
DEFINE MORPHOLOGICAL MUTATION
A CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQ. THAT ALTERS THE STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE ORGANISM
DEFINE BIOCHEMICAL MUTATION
A CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQ. THAT ALTERS A CHEMICAL REACTION IN THE ORGANISM
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A BIOCHEMICAL MUTATION
A MUTATION THAT DESTROYS THE ABILITY TO SYNTHESIZE FOLIC ACID ( NECESSARY FOR GROWTH) COULD CREATE AN AUXOTROPH
DEFINE CONDITIONAL MUTATION
A CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQ. THAT ONLY AFFECTS THE ORGANISM IN SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTS
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A CONDITIONAL MUTATION
THE ABILITY TO CREATE PENICILLANASE ( ONLY BENEFICIAL WHEN PENICILLAN IS PRESENT)
WHAT ARE THE TWO WAYS THAT DNA SEQUENCE CHANGES
BASE SUBSTITUTION
FRAME SHIFT
DEFINE BASE SUBSTITUTIONS (ONE OF THE WAYS THAT DNA SEQ CAN CHANGE)
THE IDENTITY OF ONE OR MORE BASE PAIRS IN THE DNA SEQUENCE IS ALTERED
WRITE AN EXAMPLE OF A BASE SUBSTITUTION
G-C PAIR CHANGES TO A-T
IN A BASE SUBSTITUTION, WHERE DOES THE CHANGE IN AMINO ACID(IF ANY) OCCUR
THE CHANGE IN AMINO ACID OCCURS AT THE POINT OF THE MUTATION
DOES A BASE SUBSTITUTION ALTER THE # OF BASES IN THE GENE
NO,,,A BASE SUBSTITUTION DOES NOT ALTER THE # OF BASES IN THE GENE
A BASE SUBSTITUTION CAN LEAD TO A _____________
MISSENSE MUTATIION
DEFINE A MISSENSE MUTATION
A CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQUENCE THAT ALTERS ONE AMINO ACID IN THE POLYPEPTIDE SEQUENCE
A BASE SUBSTITUTION CAN ALSO LEAD TO A ______________
NONSENSE MUTATION
DEFINE A NONSENSE MUTATION
A CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQUENCE THAT ELIMINATES THE START CODON OR CREATES A PREMATURE START CODON
DEFINE FRAMESHIFT
THE DNA SEQUENCE IS ALTERED BY THE INSERTION OR DELETION OF NUCLEOTIDE BASE PAIRS
A FRAMESHIFT CHANGES THE # OF _________ IN THE GENE
BASE PAIRS
DEFINE FRAMESHIFT (DELETION)
THE CHANGE IN THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE BEGINS AT THE POINT OF MUTATION AND CONTINUES THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE POLYPEPTIDE
CAN FRAMESHIFTS LEAD TO MISSENSE AND NONSENSE MUTATION
YES THEY CAN
WHAT ARE THE TWO BASIC CAUSES OF MUTATION
SPONTANEOUS
INDUCED
DEFINE SPONTANEOUS MUTATION
A CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQUENCE THAT OCCURS DURING DNA REPLICATION DUE TO AN ERROR BY THE POLYMERASE
DEFINE POLYMERASE
AN ENZYME THAT COPIES DNA
WHAT IS THE OCCURENCE OF SPONTANEOUS MUTATION
1/1MILLION GENES COPIED,,,RELATIVELY RARE
DEFINE SEMI CONSERVATIVE REPLICATION
USED WHEN DISCUSSING SPONTANEOUS MUTATION...(2) COPIES ARE 1/2 THE ORIGINAL DNA AND 1/2 NEWLY CREATED
DEFINE INDUCED MUTATION
A CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQUENCE DUE TO EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENS
DEFINE MUTAGENS
ANY CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL FACTOR THAT ALTERS THE DNA SEQUENCE
GIVE (2) EXAMPLES OF INDUCED MUTATIONS
BENZPYRENE----FOUND IN SMOKE AND SOOT CAUSES FRAMESHIFTS
NITROUS ACID---CREATED FROM SOME SOILS, CAUSES BASE SUBSTITUTIONS
WHAT IS THE OCCURENCE OF INDUCED MUTATIONS
1/1000 GENES COPIED