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68 Cards in this Set

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Microbes in Environment?
They are producers, consumers, decomposers!
Different Types of Water
Potable - water fit for human consumption

Polluted - rendered useless for a purpose

Eutrophication - abundant nutrients allowing for algae growth

Pathogens in water usually from feces
Testing for water contamination!
Basically testing for Coliform bacteria - like E coli and others

Coliform test - put on nutrient plate where only coliform can grow.
Water Purification
Well water does not need extensive purification.

Flocculation - precipitation of insoluble particles by teh addition of alum
Filtration - through sand or charcoal
Chlorination - kills bacteria
Sewage
Used water and its respective waste. (used to go into rivers)

Sewage Treatments:
Primary - physical removal (screens)
Secondary - biological removal by treating with microbes (bacteria)
Tertiary - chemical and physical (chlorine or sand)
Septic Tanks
Microbes decomposed sludge - must be pumped. No chlorine, just gravel and soil.
Bioremediation
Use of natural or genetically engineered microbes to transform harmful substances into less or non-toxic ones (cleaning up oil or poop)
Microorgranisms as Food
Yeast - health food stores (baker's yeast used in bread production as it causes it to rise, also flavor of beer)
Algae - sushi
Bacteria
Also - vinegar, sauerkraut, pickles, green olives, soy sauce and poi
Microorganisms as Dairy
Buttermilk, sour cream, yogurt, fermented milk.
Probiotics - live bacteria in the yogurt!
Curd - solid.
Whey - liquid.
Ripening - action of microorganisms on curd.
Gonorrhea
Bacterial STD

Women may be aysmptomatic, "pill" favors growth, "drip" of pus, humans are a natural host
1 million new cases/yr
Antibiotics - recovery does not confer immunity
Chlamydia
Bacterial STD

Treated with anitibiotics, same as gonorrhea's medicine, very high risk of reinfection
Syphilis (The Pox)
Bacterial STD

Body fluids including saliva, Humans only reservoir, primary stage (4-6 wks) - chancres on genitals or lips, latent phase, secondary stage - (years) - pox, sometimes ends here, tertiary syphilis - gummas and permanent damage

Congenital syphilis - weird teeth, shins, and nose

No vaccine, harder to treat
Herpes
Viral STD
AIDS
Viral STD
Genital Warts
Viral STD
Bacterial STDs
Organisms are senstivie to dying
Thrive in warmth
Exchange of bodily fluids
Curable, but long term effects if not
Non-gonococcal urthetritis
Coincident with gonorrhea
May be caused by chlamydia
Watery discharge, many asymptomatic, lead to sterility
Leprosy, Trachoma, UTI, Conjunctivitis
Bacterial Diseases
Malaria - Etiology
Plasmodium causes it
Biological Vector - Mosquito
Mosquitos and humans are hosts
Infects RBCs
Cause of Malaria
Caused by PROTIST - plasmodium
Treatment of Malaria
Blood smear shows disease
Quinine first effective drug.
Prophylactic drugs given to those traveling to endemic areas
Bed nets - prevent mosquitos
Leishmaniasis
Caused by protists.
Skin lesions carried by sand flies
Iraqi soldiers.
African Sleeping Sickness
Tsetse fly carries PROTISTA.
Resistance to drugs
(Trypanosome)
Chagas Disease
Kissing bug carries Trypanosome
20 yrs later - heart attack
Giardiasis
Protist
Fecal-oral transmission
Found in most all lakes
Cysts in intestines
Amoebiasis
Dysentery - PROTIST
Tropical
Fecal-Oral
Meningoencephalitis
PROTIST - goes into water and enters nose and goes to brain. Death in a week.
Fungal Diseases
Hypersensitivity
Mycotoxins - release dangerous toxins
Mycoses - infections on body
Fungal skin Disease
Candidiasis, Madura foot
Other Fungal Infections
Athlete's Foot
Fungal infection of the Eye
Ringworm
Fungal Disease Treatment
Drugs reduce the toxicity by targeting the cell wall
Lymphatic Filariasis / Elephantiasis
Caused by worms
Affects Haiti/the poor
Legs swollen
Cannot be reversed
Loaisis
Loaloa worm transmitted by deer flies
Adult worms live in eyes
River Blindness
Roundworm transmitted by blackflies
Guinea Worm
Millions of infections
Drinking dirty water
Gradual removal
Cut down by Carter
Viral Nervous System Diseases
Rabies
Meningitis
Encephalitis
West Nile Fever
Polio
Prion Diseases
Mad Cow
Creutzfield Jakob
Rabies
Most mammals infected
Headache, confusion, coma
Vaccine or rabies immune globulin after exposure
Long incubation period
Animals and those in danger given vaccine beforehand
Meningitis
Bacterial or Viral
Inflammation of nervous system lining
Lethal
Viral Encephalitis
Brain inflammation
Bird and horses as carrier
West Nile Fever
First case NYC 1999
Horses, birds, humans hosts
Causes encephalitis
can only relieve symptoms
Viral diseases of the Visceral organs
Yellow Fever
Dengue Fever
Mononucleosis
Hepatitis
Norovirus
Hantavirus
Ebola
Yellow Fever
Mosquito Vector
Monkeys are reservoir
High death rate
Vaccine available
Viral
Dengue Fever
Self-limiting
Bone and joint pain
No treatment\Virus
Mono
Epstein Barr Virus
Sore throat, fatigue
Spread through saliva, self-limiting
Hepatitis
Inflammation of liver, jaundice
Hep B and C - blood - chronic
Hep A - fecal oral - infectious
Gastrointestinal Diseases - Viral
Rotavirus - nosocomial infection, vaccine, infant morbidity

Norwalk Virus (Norovirus) - diarrhea
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Hantavirus, Ebola, Marburg
Don't Rely on Humans
Death by organ damage
Hantavirus Syndromes
transmission from rodents, different strains
Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever
Marburg - bats, monkeys, Angola, no cure, fever, diarrhea
Ebola - Major outbreaks, filamentous virus
Streptococcal Diseases
S pyogenes - fever, strep throat
S pneumoniae - high mortality
Superantigens
Antigen capable of producing inappropriately strong immune response
Can lead to systemic schock
Strep Throat
Sore throat, enlarged tonsils
Streptococcus Sequelae
Incomplete antibiotic treatment or none can lead to this - fever
Impetigo
Skin infection
S pyogenes or S aureus
Necrotizing fasciatis
"flesh eating" - eats away skin
S pyogenes
Strep Treatments
Antibiotics - little resistance
Vaccine for pneumonia
Bacterial Diseases of the Mouth
Dental Plague - covering of teeth with microbes, sugar and bacteria cause dissolving
Dental Caries - cavities
Periodontal Disease - gum inflammation, gingivities < trench mouth < periodontititis
Meth mouth
Staph Diseases
Staph Aureus and Staph epidermidis
- Can be normal flora
- Boils, pimples, impetigo
MRSA, pneumonia, meningitis
Staph Aureus Virulence Factors
Hemolysins, Coagulase, Leukocidin, Superantigens
MRSA
Resistant staph aureus
Treated with antibiotics, maggot therapy, phage therapy
Diptheria
Treated with toxoid vaccine, blocks airways. Caused by bacteria
Whooping Cough
Violent cough, antibiotics do little, there is a vaccine, herd immunity need to be improved
Bacterial
Meningococcal Meningitis
College students are victim, lethal, airborne
Bacterial
TB
Contagious, used to be called consumption, bacteria into lungs
Vaccine - attenuated bovine virus
Treatment - antibiotics
Soil borne bacterial diseases
Anthrax, Tetanus (lockjaw), Gas Gangrene
Arthropod borne bacterial diseases
Plague - rodents, fleas
Tularemia - rabbits
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - ticks
Typhus - lice
Erlichiosis - ticks
Lyme - ticks
Lyme
Vector - tick, high %
Hosts - humans
Headache, fatigue, bullseye
DEET preventative measures
Antibiotics - no more vaccine
Bacterial