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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
respiratory system, two major divisions
conducting portion and respiratory portion
conduction portion, 7 components
nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
respiratory portion, 3 components
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
nasal cavities are
paired chambers separated by a bony and cartilagenous septum
nasal cavities, three regions
vestibule, respiratory segment, olfactory segment
vestibule, definition
site of communication with external environment via the external nares (nostrils)
vestibule, tissue type
stratified squamous epithelium with hair
vestibule, function of hairs within
prevent large particles from entering nasal cavities (I.e. BUGS)
end of vestibule, tissue change
stratified squamous epithelium is replaced by respiratory epithelium, pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells
goblet cells are
single-celled glands
olfactory mucosa is
specialized epithelium involved in smell
respiratory segment, tissue type
respiratory epithelium = pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells
lamina propria of respiratory segment
lose connective tissue that is attached to the periosteum of the underlying bone
medial wall, respiratory segment
nasal septum
lateral wall, respiratory segment
conchae/turbinates
conchae/turbinates, function
increase surface area and cause a turbulence in air flow to allow for better warming & mosturizing of the air
vasculature of respiratory segment is increased because
it needs to function to help warm the air
conchae/turbinates, secondary function
cause eddies in airflow that help remove particulate matter by trapping it in the mucus of the cavity
goblet cells, contents
mucus
in respiratory epithelium, all cells sit
on basal lamina (they're pseudostratified)
nasal cavity lamina propria, characteristic
very vascular
function of vasculature in lamina propria of nasal cavity
warms inspired air nearer to body temperature
during allergic reactions & viral infections, lamina propria of nasal cavity becomes
excessively engorged and leaky
engorgement of lamina propria vessels during allergic reactions & viral infections causes
distension of the lamina propria which makes breathing more difficult
nasal cavity lamina propria contains what type of glands?
mucous glands with serous demilunes
demilune cells secrete
lysozyme, an antibacterial
olfactory segment is lined by
olfactory epithelium
olfactory mucosa in humans is measured in
mere square centimeters (as opposed to in mammals, where it's larger)
olfactory epithelium, tissue type
pesudostratified columnar epithelium
olfactory segment, # of cell types
four
olfactory cells
special visceral sensory cells
supporting / sustentacular cells
provide mechanical & metabolic support for olfactory sensory cells; role is similar to that of glial cells
basal cells
mitotic cells that renew the sensory & sustentacular (supporting) cells
brush cells
general sensory cells innervated by the trigeminal n (CN V); signal touch from the olfactory epithelium (also found in respiratory epithelium)
olfactory cells have
bipolar neurons (they're actually neural cells)
olfactory cells span
the thickness of the olfactory epithelium
olfactory cells contain ______ structure at their apical surface
knob-like structure called the olfactory vesicle
function of olfactory vesicle
has a number of non-motile cilia on its surface that are the sites of the olfactory receptors
basal end of olfactory cells gives rise to
an axoon
axons that arise from olfactory cells join
other axons to form the olfactory n (CN I)
olfactory axons penetrate what part of the skull?
the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone to synapse in the olfactory bulb
olfactory n axons synapse in
the olfactory bulb
olfactory neurons have the special ability to
regenerate
olfactory (Bowman's) glands function to
flush cells so that molecules don't linger
olfactory epithelium can be id'd on slide by
nerves & vasculature
nasopharynx is the portion of the pharynx located
aboce the soft palate * behind the nasal cavities
pharynx is located
posterior to the nasal & oral cavities
nasopharynx is lines by
respiratory epithelium
the posterior wall of the nasopharynx contains
the pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
epiglottis, core comprised of
elastic cartilage
structure that projects into the pharynx from the rim of the larynx
epiglottis
lingual surface of epiglottis is lined by
stratified squamous epithelium
laryngeal surface of epiglottis is lined by
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
lamina propria of epiglottis contains
mixed mucous & serous glands
larynx, structure
complex; connects pharynx with trachea
lamina propria of larynx characterized by
laryngeal cartilages
laryngeal cartilages are the
thyroid, cricoid, & arytenoid cartilages
laryngeal cartilages, function
maintain patency of larynx & play major role in vocalization
false vocal folds aka
ventricular folds
false vocal folds consist of
two upper pairs of folds found in the larynx
false vocal folds, histological composition
covered by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, the lamina propria of which contains numerous serous glands
true vocal folds aka
vocal cords
true vocal folds consist of
lower pair of folds in the larynx
true vocal folds, histological composition
covered by stratified squamous epithelium
true vocal folds, specialized structure
parallel bundles of elastic fibers that form vocal ligaments
muscle found in true vocal folds
vocalis muscle
vocalis muscles, location
parallel to vocal ligaments
vocalis muscles, type & innervation
skeletal mm, innervated by vagus n (CN X)
false vocal folds, composition (tissue type)
adipose / fat tissue
structure between false & true vocal folds
ventricles
trachea, structure of
short tubular structure about an inch in diameter & 5 inches long; extends from larynx to mid thorax
trachea branches into
two primary bronchi
tracheal mucosa, composition
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium) & elastic-rich lamina propria
tracheal mucosa contains 5 types of cells, including
ciliated cells, goblet cells, brush/sensory cells, small granule cells, & basal cells
function of small granule cells
enteroendocrine cells
function of basal cells in trachea
repopulation of epithelium
cilia of epithelial cells beat
in unison upward to move mucus toward the oropharynx
epithelium of trachea rests upon
v. thick basement membrane
basement membrane of trachea composed of
densely packed collagen fibers that lie immediately beneath the epithelial basal lamina (thick reticular lamina, so it's part of lamina propria)
in smokers, chronic coughing causes
basement membrane to thicken
lamina propria of trachea is a
loose connective tissue
cells found in lamina propria of trachea include
mast cells, plasma cells, & macrophages
diffuse & nodular lymphatic tissue can characterize the lamina propria of
the trachea
cartilagenous layer of the trachea, composed of
hyaline cartilage
______ form the cartilagenous layer of the trachea
16-20 c-shaped cartilages
cartilage of trachea allows for
flexibility of trachea while maintining patency
in older individuals, cartilagenous layers of trachea may become
calcified & form bone
posteriorly, the c-shaped cartilage of the trachea is attached by
the trachealis muscle (smooth muscle)
trachealis muscle, type
smooth muscle
contraction of trachealis muscle causes
increase in velocity of expelled air during cough reflex
during a cough, the c-shaped cartilage
decreases its diameter
primary bronchi, location
extrapulmonary (outside the lungs)
primary bronchi similar in structure to trachea except
there are rings of cartilage rather than c-shaped cartilages
rings of primary bronchi
completely encircle bronchi
as bronchi enter lungs, cartilagenous rings are replaced by
irregular plates distributed circularly around the entire circumference of the bronchus
progressing inferiorly down respiratory tree, cartilage is replaced by
smooth muscle
bronchus composed of _____ tissue
respiratory epithelium (have goblet cells interspersed among ciliated cells)
bronchioles, air conducting tubes measure
1 mm or less in diameter
larger bronchioles have this tissue type
typical respiratory epithelium (pseudostratified columnar epithelium)
further down, epithelium of bronchioles becomes
simple ciliated columnar, then simple cuboidal
goblet cells found in
largest bronchioles but not smaller ones
broncioles do not contain
cartilage
cartilage is replaced by _____ in bronchioles
smooth muscle (thick)
distinguish bronchioles from bronchi by
noticing absence of cartilage in bronchioles
bronchioles have no
subepithelial glands
clara cells first found in
bronchioles
clara cells secrete
a lipoprotein that prevents adhesion of adjacent walls during expiration
clara cell protein (CC16) used to
assess damage to lungs
cleara cell protein decreases
in bronchioalveolar fluids when lung is damaged
if clara cell protein is present in blood it indicates
lung damage
terninal bronchioles are
smallest bronchioles with purely conducting function
terminal bronchioles comprised of
simple cuboidal epithelium with clara cells
transition from bronchioles to alveoli, tissue type
simple cuboidal epithelium to simple squamous epithelium
respiratory bronchioles are
transitional structures that serve as the first part of the respiratory tree where gas exchange occurs
respiratory bronchioles have _____ lumens
narrow
respiratory bronchioles, tissue type
simple cuboidal epithelium
initial portion of respiratory bronchioles contains ______ cells
ciliated & Clara cells
distally, respiratory bronchioles contain mostly _______ cels
Clara cells
scattered, thin-walled outpouchings of lumen of respiratory bronchioles are
alveoli
Kartegener syndrome is
immotile cilia syndrome wherein there is a difficiency of DYNEIN, the ATPase necessary for ciliary movement
alchohol affects
ciliar movement
chronic alcoholics frequently have
pneumonia
smoking impairs
ciliary motility and increases mucus production in the trachea & bronchi
in smokers, goblet cells can be found
further down in respiratory tree (in bronchioles)
asthma occurs when
mast cells in lamina propria release histamine & other vasoactive substances in response to allergens
asthma causes
constriction of smooth muscle in the bronchioles
drugs used to rela smooth muscle during asthma attacks
epinephertine & sympathomimetic drugs
cystic fibrosis is
autosomal recessive disorder that causes defect in Cl- channel protein, resulting in abnormal transport of Cl- in exocrine gland epithelium
cystic fibrosis results in
decreased Cl- secretion & increased Na+ & H2O resorption
mucus in individuals with CF becomes
very thick & viscous, eventually blocking bronchioles & bronchi
average lifespan, pt with CF
32 years
alveoli are site of
gas exchange
# of alveoli in human lung
~ 300 million; dramatically increase gas exchange surface area
shape, alveoli
polyhedral chamber; thin-walled
alveoli connect to respiratory bronchiole by way of
an alveolar duct & an alveolar sac
alveolar ducts are
elongate airways with almost no walls, only alveoli as their peripheral boundaries
alveolar sacs are
spaces surrounded by clusters of alveoli
alveolar epithelium composed of ____ cells
type I & type II pneumocytes
type I pneumocytes
extremely thin, squamous cells; form 95% of alveolar lining; attach to surrounding cells via tight junctions
type II pneumocytes
secretory cells; cuboidal structure; interspersed among type I cells & only cover about 5% of alveolar lining because of their taller structure
air-blood barrier composed of
septal components and monomolecular layer of surfactant
surfactant produced by
type II pneumocytes
components of alveolar septum are
alveolar epithelial cells, basal lamina of alveolar epithelial cells, basal lamina of capillary endothelial cells, & endothelial cells
alveolar septum is
site of gas exchange between air & blood
type II pneumocytes contain
lamellar bodies
lamellae of type II pneumocytes are
rich in phospholipids among which is the surface active agent surfactant
lamellar bodies are released into
alveolar spaces
surfactant forms
a monomolecular layer over the surface of the lining cells
surfactant reduces
surface tension at the air-epithelium interface
without surfactant, alveoli would
collapse upon exhalation
respiratory distress syndrome is
problem in premature infants that haven't developed sufficiently to produce surfactant (RDS in adults is totally different)
goodpasture syndrome is
disease in which antibodies are made to type IV collagen; this can affect the basal laminae of the alveolar septae in the lungs
goodpasture syndrome also affects
renal glomerular basal lamina
goodpasture syndrome classified by its affects
on lungs & kidneys
goodpasture syndrome most common among
males, avg, age 29
emphysema aka
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
emphysema characterized by
a permanent dilation of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole
COPD caused by
chronic obstruction of airflow due to narrowing of bronchioles
in COPID, alveolar walls
are destroyed & gas exchange becomes severely impaired
most common cause of COPD
cigarette smoking (also occupational hazards, eg coal mining)
treatment for COPD
collapse dilated, damaged portions of lung to allow room within thoracic cavity for expansion of remaining normal lung tissue during inspiration
alveolar macrophages function in both
connective tissue & air spaces
alveolar macrophages scavenge the surface of the epithelium and
remove inhaled particulates
alveolar macrophages aka
dust cells
engorged macrophages are
carried up in respiratory tree in mucus, moved by cilia in the tract; at pharynx, they are swallowed or expectorated
connective tissue macrophages remain in the CT for
an extremely long time
congestive heart failure cuases lungs to become
congested with blood
CHF, cause
red cells are forced into alveolar spaces from damaged capillaries
alveolar macrophages phagocytose
RBCs and contain iron pigment, hemosiderin
hemosiderin-filled macrophages aka
heart failure cells
alveolar macrophages derived from
monocytes