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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cool and strong
blood is a connective tissue
how many erythrocytes are in the blood per microliter
several million,
platlets are several hundred thousand
5 types of leukocytes
neutrophils (50-70% of total leukocytes)
normal hematocrit levels
40-50% in males
35-45% in females
what types of hematocrit levels do you see in polycythemia
extremely high
buffy coat
thin layer of leukocytes and platlets just above the hematocrit. normally occupies 1% of blood
plasma vs serum definitions
plasma - liquid phase of unclotted blood

serum - liquid phase the remains after the blood is allowed to clot

serum = plasma - clotting factors
blood smear stains
Romanovsky stains such as Wright's or Giemsa

methylene blue - nuclei ribos and basophil granules purple

azure dyes - azurophilic granules (lysosomes) reddish purple

Eosin - specific granules of eosinophils red, and RBC salmon pink
how do RBC's convert CO2 to bicarbonate
carbonic anhydrase (makes HCO3- bicarbonate), the bicarbonate once made then leaves the RBC
what does the shape of the RBC do in terms of function?
it increases SA for gas exchange
still contain a few residual polysomes, certain stains can cause them to clump together and form a dark staining network(reticulum)

they account for ~1% of circulating RBC's

increased reticulocytes indicated increased RBC production and possible clinical importance(like hemolytic anemia)
spectrin, ankryin, band 4.1, actin, glycophorin, band3
lifespan - 120 days, when they loose flexibility they are destroyed by the spleen (also bone marrow and liver)

cytoskeleton - spectrin lattice ( spectrin tetramers, actin ankyrin band 4.1) just beneath plasma mem is bound to integral mem proteins - glycophorin and band 3
what is poikilocytosis
what are the three types of poikilocytes
abnormalitites in RBC shape

abnormally shaped RBC = poikilocyte

drepanocytes(sickle cell)
hereditary sphereocytosis
hereditary elliptocytosis
-defect that interfere with anchoring of the cytoskeleton to plasma mem
defect in erythrocyte size

macrocytes - abnormally large (folate and vitamin b12 defic)

microcytes - abnormally small (iron)
hypochromic RBC's
hyperchromic - mass amoutn hemoglibun, rare

hypochromic - decreased hemoglobin
decreased O2 carrying capacity by blood
platlets (thrombocytes)
2-3 micrometers(rbc is 7.5)
has a hyalomere (clear outter) and a granulomere(basophilic inner)
what granules does the granulomere contain?

delta granules - Ca and Serotonin, also ATP and ADP

alpha - larger/more numerous,
have PGDF(platlet-derived growth factor)
- von Willebrand Factor
- thrombospondin
- thromboplastin (converts prothrombin to thrombin)

Lambda granules - lysosomes(clot reabsorption)
what do these things do

von Willebrand factor - released by damaged epithelial cells it binds collagen in the basement membrane, platlets then have vWF receptors which allows them to adhere to the damaged site

thrombospondin - adhesion
thromboplastin - clotting (prothrombin->thrombin)
PGDF - platlet derived growth factor, vessel repair, strongly mitogenic

serotonin - platlet aggregation and vasoconstriction

Ca - promotes secretion of alpha and delta platlet granules, after about an hour the clot retraction happens and it is needed to activate Myosin-ligh-chain-kinase inorder for the platlets to contract
von Willebrands disease
deficiency of vWF, most common bleeding disorder
Bernard-Soulier disease
defic of platler receptor for vWF
glanzmann's thrombasthenia
defic of platlet receptor for fibrinogen , doesnt allow aggregation and crosslinking of platlets
what is happens when a blood vessel is damaged?
1)platlets adhere to exposed vWF basment membrane
2)platlets aggregate and crosslink using fibrinogen
3) adherent platlets are activated and release Ca, and cleave arachidonic acid via cox to TXA2, TXA2 Ca and serotonin promote further aggregation
4) Vasoconstriction by serotonin and TXA2
5)blood coagulation, meshwork of FIBRIN stabalizes platlet plug and forms a 2o hemostatic plug
6)clot retraction after ~ 1hr, Ca required to activate MLCK
7)Clot resorption - TPA lyse and lysosomal enz resorb
8) vessel repair via PDGF(mitogenic)
what two types of membrane bound tubules does the granulomere of platlets have?
open canilicular system - invag of plasmlemma

dense tubular system - stores Ca not continuous w/plasmalemma
regulation of platlet activation
normally collagen and lamanin are not exposed (these would acitvate)

healthy endothelia produce PGI2 which inhibits platlet aggregation and thrombomodulin which inhibits blood clotting