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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 Main Tissues
1. Connective/Supportive
2. Nervous
3. Muscle
4. Epithelium
Epithelial Characteristics
-covers all body surfaces
-protects, absorbs, transports, secretes, excretes, gas exchange
-continual renewal thru mitosis
-lack blood vessels, nutrients via diffusion
-has basement membrane
-on apical domain of epithelium
-made of actin filaments
-increases surface area [ex: digestive tract]
-calcium ion dependent cell adhesion molecule
-loss of cadherin function causes tumor metasasis [tumor can move]
-link cadherins to actin in cytoplasmic domain
-calcium ion dependent cell adhesion molecule
-helps white blood cell migration
-bind to carbs via lectins ["to select"]
Ig Superfamily
-calcium ion independent cell adhesion molecules
-receptors for HIV virus
-calcium ion independent
-unique cause bind to inside & outside of cell
-helps embryonic cell migration & cell-cell interactions
-Zonula Occludance [occluding junctions]
-Zonula Adherance [anchoring junctions]
-Macula Adherance [anchoring]
-GAp junctions [gap/communicating junctions]
Occluding Junctions
-zonula occludance
-"tight" junctions
-holds cell close together
Anchoring Junctions
-zonula adherance [goes around cell, below zonula occludance]
-macula adherance [spot adherines, "desmosomes"]
Gap Junctions
-tunnel from one cell to another
-formed by membrane proteins
-allows movement of Ca+
-close if too many ions
-NOT intercellular junction
-connects basolateral domain to basement membrane
Basement Membrane
-basal lamina + reticular lamina
Basal Lamina
-direct contact w/ plasma membrane
-laminin [made by epithelial cells] & collagen type IV
-helps in filtering mechanism of kidneys
Reticular Lamina
-formed by fibroblasts in connective tissue
-type III collagen
Saltatory & Axonal Vesicular Transport
-Saltatory: continuous & random movement
-Axonal: directional movement
Kinesin & Cytoplasmic Dynein
-Kinesin: anterograde, away from cell center [KolA]
-Cytoplasmic Dynein: retrograde, towards cell center [RC]
Myosin I
-hydrolizes ATP for energy
-found in all cells [in microvilli]
-smaller, one head & tail
Myosin II
-made of 2 chains [light & heavy]
-found in muscle & non-muscle
Euchromatin, Heterochromatin, Pyknotic
-Euchromatin: transcriptionally active, unwound DNA
-Heterochromatin: transcriptionally inactive, wound DNA
-Pyknotic: very condensed chromatin, indicates cell is sick/dieing
-sight for ribosomal RNA [rRNA]synthesis
-visible when cell is euchromatic [in transcription]
Mitosis Phases
-Prophase: chromatin condenses
-Metaphase: chromosomes align on equitorial plate, helps find cancer
-Anaphase: sister chromatids divide
-Telophase: nuclar membrane reforms

-Cytokenesis: cell splits to form 2 daughter cells
Glyclolipids, Phospholipids, Cholesterol
-Phospholipids: comprise 50% of cell membrane
-Glycolipids: on outer surface, cell identity markers
-Cholesterol: adds stability to membrane
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
-has attached ribosomes
-produces proteins used mainly outside cell
-free ribosomes [not on ER] produce proteins for inside the cell
Golgi Apparatus
-modifies proteins from rough ER
Types of Endocytosis [Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis, Clathrin-Coated]
-Phagocytosis: "cell eating"
-Pinocytosis: "cell drinking"
-Clathrin-Coated: take in small macromolecules
-produces ATP for energy
-mitochondrial DNA from mother
-can self-replicate
-more ATP needed = more mitochondria
Mitochondrial Membranes
-outer: porins [openings] allow ions to enter
-inner: cristae [folds] & matrix produce ATP
-contain diff enzymes
-catalyze decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, synthesize lipids [cholesterol], synthesize bile salts in liver
Perimyseum, Epimysium, Endomyseum
-Perimyseum: covers fascicle [bundle of muscle cells]
-Epimysium: covers named muscle [ex: deltoid], dense connective tissue
-Endomyseum: covers each muscle fiber/cell

-routes for blood vessels & nerves
Sarcolemma, Sarcosomes, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
-Sarcolemma: plasma membrane around each muscle cell
-Sarcosomes: mitochondria in muscle cells
-Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: smooth, holds Ca+