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51 Cards in this Set

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3 lens and their functions for compound light microscopy
•Condenser lens:
-focuses light onto plane of specimen
Objective lens:
-picks up from specimen, focused on focal plane where it is magnified.
Ocular lens:
-magnifies image from objective focal plane
Magnification
Objective X Ocular lens
magnification
for a 10X objective lens and typical 10 X ocular lensmagnification:
10 X 10 = 100 X
Resolution
The minimum distance b/w 2 distinguishable objects
Ways to change the resoultion
(want to decrease D) by changing alpha or angular aperture (moving objetive lens closer to specimen), using oil (refractive index N is 1.5 for oil) or using blue light
Difference b/w air and oil for microscopic resolution
Air has a N=1 and maximum resolution is 0.3 micro meters
for oil N=1.5 and you can get 0.2 micro meters
The limit of resolution by light
microscopy is
________
, regardless of the
magnification
0.2 µm
Electron microscopy (EM) vs LM
TEM resolution is as little as 1 nano meter and resolving power is 200x better than LM
TEM and SEM are used to reveal cell and tissue____
ultrastructures
The thickness of tissue thin sections for light microscopy is usually 4-5 µm so that each section encompasses ___ layer (s) of cells
a single
layer of cells
in the tissue
Examples of basophilic cells
DNA and RNA (due to phosph ion)
Electron Micrograph of cell
Electron micrograph of cell
Haemotoxylin and Eosin (H&E)
color and pH properties
-Haemotoxylin is blue
and basic so it binds to negative ions
-Eosin is pink and is
acidic so binds to positively
charged structures
Acidophilic structures
collagen, cytoplasm, eosinophilic granules
Major cellular components seen clearly with light microscope
plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleoli
Protiens suspended or intrinsic to phospholibid bilayer are (stationary/fluid) and (rigid/flexibile)
Fluid and flexible
Plasma Membrane is made of
Protiens (1/2 total mass) and glycocalyx
Types of membrane proteins
intrinsic and extrinsic
Glycocalyx description
carbohydrate layer that covers external membrane composed of glycoproteins and glycolipids
Glycocalyx functions
plasma membrane component that aids in cell recognition intercellular adhesion, and mechanical and chemical protection of brush border
Histones
nucleoproteins include these small positively charged proteins that control extent of DNA coiling
Two types of DNA chromatin
Heterochromatin and Euchromatin
How to distinguish heterochromatin and euchromatin
hetero- tightly coiled, inactive chromatin, DARK irregular clumps
Eu- LIGHTly staining chromatin made up of the DNA being actively transcribed to make mRNA
ultra structure of nucleus in TEM
Ultra structure of nucleus in TEM -notice euchromatin being lighter and heterochromatin being darker
In a H&E stained slide what color would you expect nucleus to be?
Dark Blue
Smooth ER
vesicles or cisternae
prominent in liver and cells than are involved in lipid and steroid synthesis
STEROID- LIPIDS
stores Ca
Rough ER
has RIBOSOMES on flattened membrane of vesicles and cisternae-- site of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, protien folding and where glycosylation
Where is portein glycosylation intiated?
rER
Ribosome fx
Site of protien synthesis (made up of proteins and rRNA)
Golgi structure
stacked saccules with peripheral dialations
Golgi's functional polarity membrane flow is made up of what two faces? How do you distinguish the faces?
Immature (Cis= convex)- where transfer vesicles arrive
Mature (trans= concave side) where secretory vesicles bud from Golgi
Golgi funcitons
maturation of various proteins, packaging secretory vesicles
Mitochandria basics
contain DNA for synthesis of (mitochondrial specific) enzymes, making enzymes of TCA cycle
Relationship b/w cell energy and number of mitochondria found in cell
Cells with high energy requirements have more mitochondria (skin is stationary so has less and muscle cell has the most even over nerve cell)
Functional relationship between Golgi and ER
Functional relationship between Golgi and ER
Lysosomes
vesicles filled wiht acidic hydrolytic enzymes
Three types of lysosoomes
primary (the ones budding off Golgi)
seconary (primary fused iwht endosomes
Autophagosomes -lysosomes that have fused with worn out organelles
Secondary lysosomes are also called and can be distinugished from primary because
endolysosomes or phagolysosomes

distinguish bc they have more stuff in tehm more material inside lysosome
Endocytosis
invagination at the cell surface-formation of an endosome (pino= fluids and phago=particles) and can have receptor mediated endocytosis
Exocytosis
Intracellular vesicle binds to cell membrane fuses and opens
Peroxisomes
Found in liver and kidneys and just like lysosomes but derived from rER instead of Golgi
Cytoskeleton
organized as microfilaments or microtubules and helps cell maintain shape and move and faciliates division and transport or attachment
microtubules
pipe-like organization of end-end units of tubulin
PIPE like structure
Centriole structure
contian 9 sets of microtubule organized pipe like
Cilia and flagella
9 sets of doublets surrounding pair of single microtubules for movement
Various lysosomes
Notice primary and secondary differences
Filaments of cells
Thin (micro) Intermediate and Thick
Examlples of three types of filaments
thin= actin
intermediate= desmin, keratin, vimentin
thick= myosin
How melanocytes appear on H&E stain
brown in color
Review major processes during cell cycle phases
prophase-migration of centrioles
metaphase-chromatin on equatorial plate
anaphase/karyokinesis-sister chromatids separate and migrate towards poles
telo- reorganize
cytokinesis- cleavage furrow and division
cell cycle
cell cycle
phases
phases