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36 Cards in this Set

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RNA viruses not mentioned in this set of flashcards?
Retroviridae, orthomyxoviridae, and paramyxoviridae.
Arthropod borne viruses are called what? And what RNA viruses belongs?
Arboviruses.

Togaviridae, flaviviridae, and bunyaviridae.
Picornaviridae are a large group of viruses containg containing?
Enterovirus: poliovirus; coxsackie A and B; echovirus, and HAV

Rhinovirus
What are the viruses that cause diarrhea?
Rotavirus and caliciviridae (includes Norwalk virus)

Note: HEV also belongs to caliciviridae
Rabies is caused by?
Rhabdoviridae
Viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever and potential bioweapons?
Filoviridae (Ebola, Marburg viruses) and Arenaviridae (Lassa Fever viruses).
What are the two members of the Togaviridae family?
Rubivirus (Rubella, German Measles) and Alpha viruses (mosquito-borne and cause encephalitis).
Although rubivirus is a togavirus, it is not a?
Arbovirus.
What are the differences and similarities between rubella and measles?
Both are contracted via respiratory secretions, prodrome of fever, lymphadenopathy, and flu-like symptoms. Red maculopapular rash that spreads form forehead to torso. Koplik spots are not present with rubella.

Complications, such as encephalitis rarely occur with Rubella. Rash last 3 days, instead of 6 with Measles.
What is the major concern with Togaviridae rubivirus?

When can a pregnant women receive the rubella vaccine?
Its ability to cross the placenta (TORCHES), and cause congenital defects in the FIRST trimester.

After pregnancy.
What body areas are affected in congenital rubella?
Heart, eyes, and CNS:

PDA, pulmonary artery stenosis, interventricular septal defects, cataracts, microcephaly.
What mediates damage of the vascular endothelial cells of dermal capillaries of Togaviridae rubivirus?
Virus-specific T cell attack virus-infected vascular endothelial cells.

Same MOA of rubeola.
Where does German measles replicate at?
Togaviridae rubivirus infects the nasopharynx and replicates in the local lymph nodes
How do you treat Togaviridae rubivrius?
German measles are treated with nothing. It is a self-limiting disease.

There is a live attenuated vaccine: MMR
How can you diagnosis rubella?
Serology (IgM), isolation of virus from throat swab and urine
What infections does the family Bunyaviridae cause?
Diseases characterized by fever and encephalitis, such as California encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, Sandfly fever virus.

Also, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
What should be considered in young adults with influenza-like symptoms who develop pulmonary edema?
Sin Nombre virus--Bunyaviridae hantavirus, responsible for Hantavirus respiratory syndrome.
What is the vector for Bunyaviridae hantavirus?
Sin Nombre virus is transmitted via the deer mouse.
How do you diagnosis Sin Nombre virus?
Serology for IgM and IgG ABs; and PCR
What is the morphology of Bunyaviridae?
-ss RNA, helical nucleocapsid enveloped.

Note: same as Orthomyxoviridae
Most RNA viruses are single-stranded (half are positive or negative), enveloped, show helical capsid symmetry and replicates in the cytoplasm. What are the exception?
Reoviridae: ds.

Nonenveloped: Picorna, Calici, and Reoviridae.

Icosahedral symmetry: Reo, Picorna, TOga, Flavi, Calici (Rhabdo has helical symmetry but is shaped like a bullet).

Replication in the nucleus: Retro and Orthomyxo.
Most of the members of the hantavirus genus cause different forms of?
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
How is Hantavirus spread?
Each novel viruses has its own distinct rodent as a host.

Human infection is strongly associated with rodent urine or droppings in a tight environment (e.g., under a tent in a remote campsite)

Transmission can occur when dried materials are inhaled.

P2P transmission has not been associated, which would cause rash and shock.
Aerosols of the hantavirus can be used for?
Bioterrorism.
What is the key early clinical marker of infection resulting Hantavirus respiratory syndrome?

What are the receptors for the hantaviruses?
Thrombocytopenia.

b3 integrins.
How do you treat Hantavirus respiratory syndrome?
Supportive: aggressive mechanical ventilation and use of systemic vasopressors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for septic shock.

Note: ribavirin has not been shown to be effective for pulmonary syndrome caused by Sin Nombre virus.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by?
A coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronarvirus (SARS-CoV).
What is the outer envelop of the coronavirus like?
Club-shaped peplomers, providing a crown-like (i.e., "corona") appearance.
What causes the cold?
Rhinovirus (really belongs in the picornaviridae family) and the coronaviridae

The coronaviridae cause a cold indistinguishable from the rhinovirus common cold. Rhino is the most common cause followed by corona (15%).

Rhino drinking a corona beer with a cold.

Other causes: adenovirus, influenza C virus, and coxsackievirus.
Coronaviruses have historically been known to cause?
Upper respiratory and enteric diseases.

Group 1 and 2 in humans and 3 only includes avian viruses.

SARS-CoV is considered group 4.
How can SARS-CoV be diagnosed?
Reverse transcriptase-PCR; serology with viral RNA in respiratory secretion, feces, urine, lung biopsy.
What is the different area of colonization between classic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV?
Classic coronaviruses: upper respiratory tract.

SARS-CoV: viral pneumonia that infects the lower respiratory tract.
What is the pathology behind SARS-CoV?
Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with multinulceated gaint cells with NO viral inclusions.

Desquamation of pneumocytes is prominent and consistent.

With progression of illness, there is more intense DAD, with increase fibrosis, squamous metaplasia, and multinucleated giant cells.
What is the treatment of SARS-CoV?
No treatment or vaccines have been developed.
What is the cause of death from SARS-CoV?
Respiratory failure.
What is the course of development of Sin Nombre virus?
Bunyaviridae hantavirus causes prodrome of flu-like symptoms, followed by pulmonary capillary leakage (resulting in pulmonary edema and hemoconcentration), producing respiratory failure.

DIC can occur.

There is a high mortality.