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93 Cards in this Set

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identify the Phylum method of transmission, and the type of disease caused by each of the following: (Trypanosoma gambiense)
transmitted by bite of tsetse fly trypanosomes move from blood to CNS. Trypanosomes cause African sleeping sickness.
Balantidium coli
cyst transmitted by fecal-oral transmission. Trophozoits feed on lining of colon causing dysentery
Entameba histolytica
cyst transmitted by facal-oral route trophozoites feed on lining of intestine may invade and damage liver cyst develope and pass out host's feces.
Giardia lamblia
cysts transmitted in water adults adhere to lining of s. intestine blocking absorption. Causes giardiasis or hiker's diarrhea
Plasmodium
transmitted by bite from female mosquito (Anopheles mosquito).Causes malaria:
Trypanosoma cruzi
Transmitted by the bite of the Triatomine bug "kissing bugs" trypanosomes infect blood, heart and CNS: Causes (Chagas' disease)
Toxoplasma gondii
humans infected by ingesting protozoa from cat litter or rare beef,can get it from kissing an animal that has just ingested protozoa from cat litter or something else.
(Causes toxoplasmosis) congenital toxoplasmosis is greatest danger.
trichomonas vaginalis
a sexually transmitted disease:Causes infection in vagina of female and urethra of male with greenish discharge that contains trophozoits.
identify following concerning Malaria: what is the definitive host of Malaria?
The mesquito
what is the intermediate host of Malaria?
The human
what is the cause of the fever and chills in Malaria?
The lysing of all infected RBC releasing merozoites all at once.
what are sporozoites?
the form that the protozoa takes when it enter the human through the mesquitos saliva.
what are gametocytes?
gametocytes are what some of the merozoites develope into.
What Kingdom contains the protozoa?
Protista
what two modes of nutrition are utilized by protozoa?
absorption and ingestion.
trophozoite?
feeding and reproducing stage
STD?
sexually transmitted disease
cyst?
thick-walled stage
fecal-oral transmission?
pathogens ingested by food or water.
definitive host?
contains mature forms with site for sexual reproduction.
intermediate host?
contains immature forms with only asexual reproduction
pellicle?
A thin layer supporting cell membrane in Protozoa allowing it to hold it's shape (ridgid protein layer)
List the four major Phyla of Protozoa and the type of motility found in each
Phylum Rizopoda: (pseudopods)
Phylum Apicomplexa:(nonmotile)
Phylum Cilliophora:(cillia)
Phylum Archaezoa:(flagellates)
Which of the four phyla contain members that have a macronucleus & a micronucleus?
Phylum Ciliophora:
Which of the four phyla contain members lack a mitochondria?
Phylum Archaezoa:
Which of the four phyla contain members are all parasitic?
Phylum Apicomplexa:
Which of the four phyla contain members have the most complex structure?
Phylum Ciliophora:
Which of the four phyla contain members are capable of phagocytosis?
Phylum Apicomplexa:
What causes the Chagas disease and how does infection spread? Also, where is it found?
Trypanosoma cruzu transmited by the bite of Triatomine bug (kissing bug)and trypanosomes infect blood,heart, and CNS. It is found in cracks and holes in substandard housing from the southern United States to southern Argentina.
What is Helminths?
macroscopic parasites that can and do invade humans.
What are the two Phyla Helminths?
Phylum platyhelminthes-flat worms:
Phylum Nematoda-round worms:
what are the characteristics of Platyhelminthes?
1.bodies flattened dorsoventrally:
2.bodies covered by protective acellular cuticle:
3.most are monecious (hermaphroditic)each adult contains both ovaries and testes:
4.suckers for attachment to host:
name two groups of Platyhelminthes.
1.Flukes (trematodes)
2.Tapeworms(cestodes)
what is the life cycle of the Clonorchis sinensis?
eggs are eaten by snail then ciliated miracidia develop in snail then asexual multiplication in snail produces other larval stages then tadpole-like larvae called cercariae leave snail and burrow into fish then encysted larvae called metacercariae develope in fish then humans eat raw or poorly cooked fish with larvae then larvae migrate to bile ducts and mature.
what is the life cycle of the Taenia saginata?
with the beef tape worm adult attaches to lining of s. intestine then gravid proglottids pass out in feces then feces deposited on ground and cow eats proglottid or fertilized eggs then cystercercus larvae (bladderworms) develope in muscle of cow then rare beef with larvae eaten by human and stomach acid causes scolex to evert and attach to s. intestine then adults develope in the s. intestine.
What is Taenia solium?
pork tapeworm:
what is the Echinococcus granulosis and what are its definitive host and intermediate host? Also, what may be the treatment?
hydatid tapeworm: definitive host is wolf,or dog contains small adult worms: intermediate host is sheep, deer,or human large hydatid cysts in liver or lungs humans ingest eggs on contaminated hands or in saliva: treatment may be surgical removal.
what are the characteristics of the Nematodes?
1.cylindrical bodies:
2.bodies covered by acellular cuticle
3.diecious(two houses)
4.complete digestive tract
5.sexual dimorphism females are larger and their distal end goes out but with males they are smaller and their distal end curves.
monecious(hermaphroditic)
male and female sex organs in the same body
WHAT IS APC?
this presents antigen to B cell able to respond.
lysozyme
enzymes in saliva and tears that kills Gram + bacteria.
what is a physical barrier that most pathogens can't go through?
skin:
what moves microbes out with mucus in lining of Trachea?
ciliary escalator:
What are Nonspefic defenses?
produces same response regardless of pathogen.
Specific Defences?
response is different with each pathogen involves immune responses:
schistosomasis?
infestation of humans:
what is Schistosoma?
blood flukes:
What is the Anatomy of an Adult Tapeworm?
Scolex=rounded end with suckers and some species have hooks for attachment:
Neck=short section distal to scolex site of asexual budding producing sections called proglottids:
Strobia=comprised of all proglottids: over 20" long in (some species):
Strobila=1.immature proglottids-nearest neck with no mature ovaries or testes.2.mature proglottids-sperm testes fertilze eggs from ovaries.3.gravid proglottids-expanded uterus filled with fertilized eggs proglottids pass out in host's feces.
monecious(hermaphroditic)
male and female sex organs in the same body
diecious
male and female adults: (two houses)
lysozyme
enzymes in saliva and tears that kills Gram + bacteria.
what is a physical barrier that most pathogens can't go through?
skin:
what moves microbes out with mucus in lining of Trachea?
ciliary escalator:
MPN?
mononuclear phagocytic system:
what is adhere?
effective contact between phagocyte and microbe:
what are opsonins?
proteins:
what is phagolysosome?
it is a larger sac than the pseudopods:
what are the most important Nonspecific Defenses phagocytes in the blood?
monocytes:
what are phagocytes?
cells that engulf and destroy microbes:
what are the cardinal signs of inflammation?
1.redness
2.heat
3.swelling
4.pain
what is found in the lysosomes?
they contain enzymes capable of breaking down pathogens:
what happens when lysosomes fuse with phagosomes?
they form a larger sac called phagolysosomes:
if a pathogen survives inside a pathocytic cell and forms an entracellular parasite, what kind of treatment is nessesary? treatment
you have to get the antibiotic into your body fluids and you have to get the antibiotic inside the phagocytic cells where they are multiplying:
the evidence of phagocytosis is the collection of fluid containing white blood cells. what is this called?
pus:
tipically there is tissue damage either because of injury or the activity of the phagocytic cells in the area. what are we talking about?
inflammation:
what is parenchyma?
functional cells, and these produce reconstruction of tissue.
what is stroma?
supporting tissue that produces scar tissue.
what is the best stroma or parenchyma?
parenchyma: because these are functional cell and the stroma are not the same as the original functional cells.
what is a body-wide Nonspecific event?
a fever:
what are the benifits of a fever below 102.0?
1.inhibits multiplication of pathogens.
2.intensifies action of interferons.
3.speeds up tissue repair.
what are the dangers of a high fever?
1.fear of convulsions
2.posibility of neurological damage.
what are pyrogens?
are fever causing proteins that act on the thermostat and are actually components of pathogens.
what is antipyretic?
asprin, Tylenol, etc.
a type of antigens antibody reaction is when the antigens are low. what happens when the antigens are low?
antibodies combine with large antigens resulting in clumping of red blood cells this is called (Agglutination):
what removes damaging effects of toxins?
Toxin neutralization:
what is called when soluble antigens are converted to insoluble forms?
Precipitation:
what is it called when antibodies combine with sites on viruses blocking attachment and infection?
Virus Neutralization:
what is it called when antibodies coat microbes while enhancing phagocytosis?
Opsonization:
what are microbes that are normally found on the body and in the body called?
Normal Flora:
what is the action of Normal Flora?
1.compete with pathogens for space and nutrients.
2.make local enviroment unfavorable for pathogens
3.produce chemicals that kill or inhibit pathogens.(microbial antagonism)
what are parts of microbes?
antigens: microbes are made up of many antigens.
what involves immune responses to antigens?
Specific Defenses:
what are molecules that trigger immune responses?
Antigens:
what are the areas of the antigen that produces immune response?
antigenic determinants: (epitopes)
what produces microsopic larvae (microfilariae) transmitted by arthropods?
Filarial worms:
what are Arthropod? Name two groups.
invertebrates with jointed legs:1.arachnids are animals with 4 pair of legs including spiders, mites, and ticks
2.insects are animals with 3 pairs of legs including bees, flies, and lice.
name sone of the harmful activities of Arthropods.
1.vectors-transmit pathogens to humans.
2.some are hosts for pathogens.
3.some produce infestations; example=chiggers and scabies:
4.some produce toxins and serious allergic reactions.
mucous membranes line open we have open body cavities that secrete mucus which works like fly paper entrapping microbes: name these cavities:
1.digestive track
2.respirtory track
3.urinary track
4.reproductive track
infestation?
invasion of human host by macroscopic parasites such s helmiths.
what is a clonal selection?
a specific antigen with B or T cell responses, mitosis takes place producing clones of B and T cells.
what is apotosis?
death of B or T cells when their not exsposed to antigens.
what is a monomer?
four polypeptide chains, (2 heavy chains with 400 amino acids) and (2 light chains 200 amino acids).
areaa of antigen that produce immune response?
antigenic determinants.