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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a virus made of?
RNA, capsule (proteins) and sometimes and envelope.
A prion is a single "nonconformist" protein
What are the most common food borne viruses?
--> Norovirus by far!
Then astro, roto virus
How are viruses detected?
Cannot be cultured in lab since they require host cell.
Detection through antibody testing, SEM.
What is the #1 cause of foodborne viral sickness?
Why are noroviruses so contagious?
LOW DOSE! 10-100 particles
Present in high doses in vomit and poo
Survival in foods: 60C doesn't kill; also resist. to Chlorine
Incubation and duration time of norovirus?
1-2 days (for both)
Detection of norovirus?
SEM, antibiodies, genetic methods
Describe the astrovirus.
Star shaped virus; causes copious diarrhea in children, elderly.
Describe the rotovirus
!!!!KEY!!! most common cause of childhood diarrhea WW! Nearly 1 millions deaths.
"Spoked" looking virus.
Why is the rotovirus so deadly?
VERY watery diarrhea. Causes severe dehydration.
How is rotovirus treated?
Main issue is sever dehydration: rehydration salts. More important: attenuated vaccine RotaTeq now available
What is a picornavirus
A virus at infects only primates. Hepatitis is one.
What forms of hepatitis are in foods?
only A&E
How do adults/kids differ in their susceptibility to Hepatitis?
If kids get it, symptoms relatively mild and then they are immune. If adults get it, symptoms much worse
What are the symptoms of Hepatitis?
fever, fatigue, naseua and jaundice. Liver problems.
How is it confirmed that you might have Hepatitis?
Tests are done to confirm presence of antibody: ie. ELISA
What is the incubation time of Hep?
LONG!!! 28 days!
What disease do prions cause?
SE: spongioform encephalopothy
Prion disease in Sheep? Cows? Humans?
Sheep = scrapie
Cows: BSE
Humans: CJD or vCJD
How does prion sickness occure?
c = conformation
sc = spongioform conf.
a single AA mutation causes different protein folding/structure giving it enzymatic activity.
Who proposed Prion mechanism?
Stanley Prusiner
How to prevent prion SE?
Dont eat tainted meat. Prion cannot be "denatured".
Detection? Incuabtion?
Detection: autopsy
Incubation: LONG!!! decade+
How has it been shown that a prion is not a virus?
UV light (which degrades RNA/DNA) does not destroy prion.