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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is food spoilage?
The loss of quality (sensorial) or safety aspects of the food.
What are the broad types of food spoilage? - give examples
-physical: moisture loss
-Chemical: lipid oxidation
enzymatic (browning)
pests (insects)
What are types of microbial food spoilages?
Can either be microbial growth or microbial enzymes.
What types of microbes spoil food?
Bacteria, yeasts & molds. Not protozoa usually.
Bacterial growth rate>>>yeats>>mold
What are the three most common food spoilage bacteria?
Bacillus (thermoduric/thermophile)
Lactobacillus (aciduric)
Pseudomonas (psychrotrophic/aerobe)
Which is the one that glows in the dark?
Pseudomonas fluorescens
What levels of microorganism are needed for "detection" of spoilage (sensory)?
Cells are detected when >10^6.

Spoilage compounds H2S, amines, h202 detected at <10^6
What are the products of aerobic respiration? Anaerobic?
Aerobic: CO2 mostly/ glucose-->metabolites-(o2)->co2

Anaerobic: Fermentation products
glucose-->metabolites--->acids, ethanol
When proteins are degraded, what are the bi-products:
1. aerobically?
2. anaerobically?
1. CO2
2. Cadaverine, putriscine, etc. - a lot of nasty, foul shit
What is the main end product in dairy causing bad flavors?
What organisms spoils fresh meat?
No dominent group. Many types (inc. pseudomonas and lactobacillus); molds and yeasts too.

Low carbs/some NPN/High H20
How to control fresh meat spoilage?
Control T, O2. Sanitary plant practices.
Why does atmospheric control delay microbrial spoilage of meat if anaerobes can still grow?
Anaerobes typically have slower growth rates than aerobes.
Why does meat turn brown/gray?
Oxidation of myoglobin
How does meat spoil?
Bacterial: off-odors, color change, slime (coalescence of colonies), souring (ferm. bi-products)

Fungal: spots/whiskers
How is meat spoilage typicaly detected?
Physical methods - pH, WHC, others.

Can also do chemically, but takes too long. Or Bacteriological methods, but same limitation.
What is curing?
Treating meat with a mix of salts/ nitrites or nitrates
NO3->no2->no which reacts with myoglobin & keeps pink
Cured (processed) meat spoilage microbe most implicated?
LAB: lactic acid bacteria. Gram + regular rods. Lactobacillus.
What modes of failure for processed meats?
Souring LAB!!!
What is greening of meat caused by?
H202 or H2S reaction with myoglobin
How to prevent spoilage in processed meats?
Additives (antimicrobials)
Microbial quality of ingredients
What group of microbe most important w/food spoilage of fish? Salted fish?
STRICT aerobes. - pseudomonas, for example.

In salted fish, yeasts & molds.
How to prevent fish spoilage?
Control o2!!!
What happens as fish degrades?
Off odors
loss of texture (proteolysis)
In fish, what leads to off smells/flavors?
degradation of NPN to TMA