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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cytokines that serve as communicators between leukocytic (white cells)
Function as chemical messengers within the immune system. (Very specific)
Chemotaxis release chemokines...
A family of cytokines that induces the migration of leukocytes into infected areas.
Humoral immunity
aka antibody mediated
Involves the production of antibodies that act against foreign organisms and substances.
B-Cells are involved in...
Humoral immunity. They are responsible for production of antibodies.
The humoral immunity response defends primarily against...
bacteria, bacterial toxins and viruses that are circulating freely in the body's fluids. Also a factor in some reactions against transplanted tissue.
Cell mediated immunity involves...
specialized lymphocytes, called T-Cells, that act against foreign orgnisms or tissues. T-Cells also regulate the activation and proliferation of other immune system cells such as microphages.
Cell mediated immunity is most affective against...
bacteria and viruses located within phagocytic or host cells and against fungi, protozoa and helminths.
acute inflammation
develops quickly and is short lived, is usu. beneficial, important in 2nd line of defense
chronic inflammation
develops slowly and lasts long time. Can damage tissues.
6 types of WBC are
neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells, monocytes, lymphocytes
neutrophils function
produce histamine
toxic to parasites and some phagocytosis
dendritic cells
initiate adaptive immune response
phagocytic as monocyte matures. Fixed macrophages in lungs, liver and bronchi. Wandering macrophages roam tissues
are involved in specific immunity
advantages of fever
increases transferrins and increase IL-1 activity
disdvantages of fever
tachycardis, acidosis, dehydration
Process of developing fever
hypothalamus is normally set to 37 degrees C, gram neg. endotoxins cause phagocytes to release IL-1. Hypothalamus releases prostaglandins that reset the hypothalamus to a new temp. Body raises metabolism and shivers which raises temp. When IL-1 is eliminated, body temp falls.
How do some bacteria evade complement?
capsules prevent C activation, surface lipid carbohydrates prevent MAC formation. Enzymatic digestion of C5a.
nucleic acid vaccine
DNA vaccine
advantage of recombinant and DNA vaccine
they do not need a cell or animal host to grow the vaccine's microbe. This is good because we do not have the technology to grow some viruses in cell culture.
inactivates whole agent vaccines
use microbes that have been killed, usually by formalin or phenol. Ex rabies, flu, polio
inactivated toxins
recombinant vaccines
are Subunit vaccines produced by genetic engineering techniques. Sununit vaccines contain only the antigenic fragments of a pathogen. It cannot reproduce in recipient.
fluoroscent antibody technique
can identify microorganisms in clinical specimins and can detect the presecnce of a specific antibody in serum
precipitation reactions
involve the reaction of soluble antigens with igG or IgM anitbodies to form large interlocking molecular aggregates called lattices
improve the effectiveness of some antigens
ELISA techniques use antibodies linked to an