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273 Cards in this Set

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NAME REACTION
Makes molecules
Anabolism
NAME REACTION
Breaks dowm molecules
Catabolism
NAME Reaction
molecules are syhtesised using dehydration
Anabolism
NAME REACTION
required energy
Anabolism
NAME REACTION
uses hydrolysis in order to break down molecules
CATAbolism
NAME Reaction
Energy is released
Catabolism
What is Anabolism?
the dehydration synthesis of macromolecules which requires energy
NAME
is the dehydration synthesis of macromolecules which requires energy
Anabolism
What is Catabolism?
is the breaking down of molecules during which energy is released
NAME
is the breaking down of molecules during which energy is released
Catabolism
Catabolism is also called ( ).
Catabolic
Anabolism is also called ( ).
Anabolic
Give ex a of Anabolic reaction (2)
formation of sucrose or ATP
Give a ex of a Catabolic reaction? (2)
the synthesis of Fatty acids or the cell wall
The synthesis of fatty acids or the cell wall is a ex of a ( ) reaction
Anabolic
The formation of sucrose or ATP are ex(s) of a ( ) reaction
Anabolic
synthesis refers to the ( ).
formation of something
ETC stands for ( ).
Electron transport chain
T or F
enzymes are gentically determined
TRue
Anabolism and Catabolism are ( ) by ATP
coupled
Enzymes function as ( ).
Catalysists
Enzymes have ( ) that bind to substrates
active sites
Enzymes have active sites that ( ).
bind to substrates
T or F
Enzymes are all used up during each chemical reaction
False
A enzyme is a ( ) that is either a apoenzyme or a holoenzyme.
protien
What is a apoenzyme?
is a protien that is inactive and does not have a cofactor
What is a holoenzyme?
is the whole enzyme which includes the cofactor or a coenzyme,and Apoenezyme
NAME
is a protien that is inactive and does not have a cofactor.
apoeznyme
NAME
is the whole enzyme which includes the cofactor or a coenzyme, Apoenezyme, and the substrate.
haloenzyme
What makes up a whole enzyme or haloenzyme? (2)
(1)cofactor or coenzyme
(2)a Apoenzyme
What are two things that triggier the binding of the substrate and the enzyme?
(1)cofactor
(2)conezyme
What is the cofactor?
is a nonprotien component that may serve as a bridge for the binding of the substrate and the enzyme together
NAME
is a nonprotien component that may serve as a bridge for the binding of the substrate and the enzyme together
cofactor
What is the coenzyme?
are cofactors that are eiher metal ions or orgainic ions
NAME
are cofactors that are either metal ions or organic ions
coenzyme
What is the differ btwn Anabolism and Catabolism?
Anabolism is dehydration synthesis of large macromolecules that requires energy and Catbolism is the break down of large macromolecules and releases energy
( 1 ) and ( 2 ) can trigger the binding of the enzyme to the substrate
(1)cofactor
(2)coenzyme
Name (3)important coenzyemes in metabolism
(1)NAD+ in catabolism and NADP+ in anabolism
(2)FAD and FMN
coA
CoA stands for ( ).
coenzyme A
NAD+ is a ( 1 ). important in ( 2 ).
(1)coezyme
(2) catabolism
NADP+ is a (1) important in (2).
(1)coenzyme (2)anabolsim
FAD is a ( ).
coenzyme
FMN is a ( ).
coenzyme
What is a catalyst?
acceelerate reaction rates by 1o th folds each w/o being permanently changed
NAME
accelerate reaction rates by 10 th folds each w/o being permanently changed
catalysts
What is the turn over number?
is the number of substrate molecules converted per second
NAME
is the number of substrate converted per second
turn over number
What is the turn over normal between?
1 and 10,000
A enzyme is a ( ) for a particular substrate.
specfic
Why is a enzyme specfic for its substrate?
bc of its shape
Enzymes normally end in ( ).
ase
NAME
normally end in ase
Enzymes
What are enzymes normally named after?
the type of reaction they catalyze
NAME
are normally named bc of the type of reaction they catalyze
Enzymes
Describe what happens in the catalytic cycle? (2)
(1)the substrate binds to the enzyme forming the Enzyme-Substrate complex (2) the enzyme produces the product
Nane four factors effecting enzyme activity?
(1)Environment (2)Enzyme inhibitors (3)Feedback inhibition (4)Ribozymes
the environment, enzyme inhibitors, feedback inhibitio, and ribozymes all affect ( ).
Enzyme activity
How does temp affect enzyme activty?
as it rises so does the chemical reaction
When temp increases, so does the ( ).
Chemical reaction
NAME
usally involes the breakage of hydrgon bonds and similar weak bonds that hold the enzyme structure together
Denaturation
IF the temperature gets hot enough, what will happen to the enzyme?
it will denature
How does ph affect enzyme activty?
all enzyme have ph optimum at which activity is the best
What does it mean when a enzyme is saturated?
it means there are high cocentrations of substrate resulting the enzyme having its active site occupied at all times
A enzyme is ( ) when its active sites are occupied at all times
saturated
NAME
they block the active site
competitive inhibitors
What are noncompetitve inhibitors?
they bind at a postion away from the ative site, changing the shape of the enzyme so that it cannot bind w the substrate
NAME
they bind at a postion away from the active site changing the shape of the eznyme so that it cannot bind w the substrate
noncompetitve inhibitors
Allosteric inhibition refers to ( ).
noncompetive inhibitors
Noncompetive inhibitors are also called ( ).
Allosteric inhibition
What is the differ btwn competive inhibitors and Allosteric inhibition
Allosteric inhibition-does not bind to the active site, changes the shape of the enzyme, and does not compete w the substrate unlike competive inhibitors which compete w the substrate but do not change their shape
Name two ways that enzyme inhibitors affect a chemical reaction?
block the active site w competive inhibitors or change the shape of the enzyme w noncompetive inhibitors
The action of ( ) drugs depends on competive inhibition
sulfa
NAME
is a specfic receptor site other than the active site
Allosteric
the binding of a Activator to a Allosteric site will result in a ( ) conformation
active
the binding of the inhibitor to the allosteric site will result in a ( ) conformation
inactive
What are roboeznymes?
a type of RNA that acts like enzymes that removes sections of RNA and splices it back together
NAME
is a type of RNA that acts like a enzyme
riboenzyme
NAME
removes sections of RNA and splices it back together
riboenzyme
What can riboenzymes be used for?
to treat viral diseases
NAME
can be used to treat viral diseases
Riboenzyme
In many instances, the final product can inhibit enzymatic activity at some step and prevent making of excessive end product. This is called ( ).
Feedback inhibition
What is feedback inhibition?
when the end product causes the inhibition of the enzymatic activity preventing execsesive a product to be made
NAME
the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits the first enzyme
feedback inhibiton
In Feedback inhibition, the end product of a metabolic pathway ( ).
inhibits the first enzyme
What are redox reactions?
two half reactions called Oxidation and Reduction
NAME
are two half reactions called Oxidation and Reduction
redox reaction
What is Oxidation
the partial or complete loss of E
NAME
is the partial or complete loss of electrons
oxidation
What is reduction?
is the partial or complete gain of electrons reducing the postive charge
NAME
is the partial or complete gain of electrons reducing the postive charge`
reduction
Reduction reduces the ( ),
+ charge
Oxygen is a powerful ( ).
Oxidizing agent
Give a ex of a powerful oxidiing agent,
oxygen
Respiration is a ( ) reaction
stepwise Redox
( ) is a stepwise Redox reaction
Respiration
In prok what is the formula for cellular repsiration?
C6H1206 + 6O2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi=6CO2 + 6H20 + 38 ATP
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate
NAME
it has a a nitrogenous base, a ribose, and a chain of three phostphate group
ATP
What are the components of ATP? (3)
(1)a nitrogenous base (2) ribose (3)a chain of three phosphate groups
What happens when ATP undergoes hydrolysis?
ADP and a phostphate is produced
Give the formula for the hyrdolysis of ATP?
ATP + H2O = ADP +Pi
HOw is ATP generated?
phosphorylation
phosphorylation generates ( ).
ATP
What is phosphorylation ?
is the direct chemical transfer of a Pi group to a chemical compound
NAME
is the direct chemical transfer of a Pi group to a chemical compound
phosphorylation
What are two methods of phosphorylation in aerobic respiration?
(1)Substrate-level phosphorylation (2) Oxidative phosphorylation
Substrate-level phosphorylation and Oxidative phosphorylation are two methods of ( 1 ) in ( 2 ).
(1)phosphorylation (2) aerobic respiration
What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
is process in which no oxygen or other inorganic final electron accecptor is required nd ATP is generated by the direct transfer of a high enegery phosphate from an intermediate metabolci compound to ADP
NAME
no energy is used to make Atp and no final eletron accepter is required
Substrate-level phosphorylation
NAME
ATP is generated by the direct transfer of a high energy phosphate group from an intermediate metabolic compound to ADP
Substrate-level phoshorylation
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
is a process in which electrons removed from an orgainic compound are transfered down the ETC to an electron accecptor such as Oxygen, releasing energy that is used to make ATP from ADP by adding a phospahte group
NAME
electrons are removed from an organic compound that are transfered dowm the ETC to an eletron acceptor such as oxygen, releasing energy that is used to produce ATP from ADP and the addition of Pi group
Oxidative phosphorylation
NAME
is the additon of a Pi group
phosphorylation
What is the fomrula for phosphorylation?
substrate + Pi + ADP = substrate + ATP
NAME
substrate + Pi + ADP = substrate + ATP
phosphorylation
NAME
provides the majority of ATP from the electron carriers
Oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative provides the ( ).
majority of ATP from the electron carriers
How is ATP regenerated?
the addition of Pi group to ADP
ADP + Pi will yeild ( ).
ATP
What is the formula to regenerate ATP?
ADP + Pi=ATP
The regeneration of ATP is a ( ) process
fast
For every ( 1 ) ATP used, ( 2 ) are regenerated
(1)10^7 (2)10^7
Cellular respiration is used in the ( ) pathway
Catabolic
( ) is a Catabolic pathway
Cellular respiration
What is the formula for cellular respiration in prok?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38 ADP + 38Pi = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP
What is the formula for cellular respiration in euk?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 +36ADP + 36 Pi= 6CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
What are three metabolic stages of Cellular respiration?
(1)Gylcolysis (2)Krebs Cycle (3)ETC
Gylcolysis, the Kreb's cycle, and ETC are ( 1 ) stages of the ( 2 ).
(1)metabolic stages (2) cellular respiration
What is glycolysis?
is the oxidation of glucose to pruvic acid w/ the production of some ATP and energy containing NADH
NAME
is the oxidation of glucose to pruvic acid w/ the production of some ATP and energy containing NADH
glycolysis
What is the Kreb's cycle?
is the odixation of acetyl to CO2 w the production of some ATP and energy containg FADH2
NAME
is the oxidation of acetyl to CO2 w the production of some ATP and energy containing FADH2
Kreb cycle
What happens in the ETC and oxidative phosphorylation?
the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to produce lots of ATP
NAME
is the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to produce lots of ATP
ETC and oxidative phosphorylation
How are the three metabolic stages of cellular respirations connected?
ATP production
What does Glycolysis mean?
sugar spliltin
NAME
mean sugar spliting
Glycolysis
Where does Glycolysis ocur?
in cytosol of all cells
NAME
Ocurs in the cytosol of all cells
Glycolysis
T or F
Glycolysis ocurs only when Oxygen is present
Flase
Glycolysis takes ( 1 ) and turns it into ( 2 ).
(1)glucose molecule (2) pyruvic acid
NAME
one glucose molecule is converted into a pryuvic acid
Glycolysis
The Kreb's cycle is also called ( ).
TCA cycle
TCA cycle is also called the ( ).
Kreb's cycle
What does TCA stand for?
Citric Acid Cycle
NAME
the cycle only uses 8 enzymatic steps
Kreb's cycle
The Kreb's cycle only uses ( ).
8 enzymatic steps
In the Kreb cycle, ( 1 ) is changed into ( 2 ).
(1)2 pyruivc acid (2)6CO2
NAME
2 pyruivc acid are changed into 6CO2
Kreb's cycle
In the Kreb's cycle, What is the ATP yield from substrate phosphorylation?
2 ATP
NAME
there is a electron transfer from NADH to FADH2
Kreb's cycle
Desribe the how the electrons are transfered from in the Kreb's cycle (2)
(1)8 NAD+ = 8NADH
(2)2 FAD+ = 2 FADH
NAME
8 NAD+ = 8 NADH
2 FAD+ = 2 FADH
Kreb's cycle
During Glycolysis, Acetyl Co A becomes pyruvic acid w the help of ( ).
Acetyl Coenzyme A
During ( ), Acetyl Co A becomes pyruvic acid w. the help of Acetyl Coenzyme A.
Glycolysis
During Glycolysis, ( 1 ) becomes ( 2 ) w. the help of Acetyl Coenzyme A.
(1)ACteyl Co A (2)pyruvic acid
During Glycolysis in Euk, Electrons are transported from the ( 1 ) across the ( 2 ) by the use of ( 3 ) ATP, which reduces the overall output of ATP in the euk cell to ( 4 ) ATP.
(1)cytoplasm (2) mitchondrio matrix (3)2 (4) 36
How are the three metabolic stages of cellular respirations connected?
ATP production
T or F
Glycolysis ocurs only when Oxygen is present
Flase
NAME type of cell
there is no net loss of ATP during Glycolysis or the krebs cycle
PRok
NAME CELL
there is a net loss of 2 ATP because electrons are tranported from the cytoplasm across the mitochondiran matrix during Glycolysis
Euk
NAME
Glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle ocur in the cystol
prok
Where does Glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle ocur in prok?
cytsol
What is the final electron acceptor in ETC?
Oxygen
Oxygen is the ( ) in ETC
final electron acceptor
What is the formula for Aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 +38 ADP + 38 ADP + 38 Pi= 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP
What is photosyntheis?
is an endergonic process of a redox reaction
NAME
is an endergonic process of a redox reaction
photosyntheis
What is the formula for photosynethis?
6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
NAME
6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
photsyenthis
NAME
there engergy source is light (2)
photoautotroph and Photoheterotrophs
NAME
there carbon source is CO2 (2)
(1)Photoautotroph (2)Chemoautotrph
NAME
there energy source is from electrons from H atoms in organic compounds
Chemoheterotrophs
What is the energy source of Photoautotophs?
light
What is the energy source of photoheterotroph?
LIght
What is the Carbon source of photoheterotroph?
CO2
Give a ex of photoheterotroph
Photosynthetic bacteria
NAME
a ex is photosynthetic bacteria
Photoheterotroph
What is the energy source of Chemoautotrophs?
Electrons from reduced inorganic compounds
What is the energy source of chemoheterotrophs?
electrons from H+ atom in organic compounds
What is the Carbon source of Photoheterotrophs?
Organic compounds
What is the Carbon source of Chemoautotrophs?
CO2
What is the Carbon source of Chemoheterotroph?
Organic compounds
NAME
there Carbon source is Organic compounds (2)
(1)Photoheterotroph (2) Chemoheterotroph
Give a ex of Photoheterotroph?
(1)Green and purple nonsulfur bacteria
NAME
a ex is Green and purple nonsulfur bacteria
Photoheterotroph
Give a ex of chemoautotrophs
H , S, Fe, and Nitrfying bacteria
NAME
ex(s) are H, S, Fe, and Nitrfying bacteria
Chemoautotrophs
NAME
ex(s) are all animals, most fungi, protozoa, and bacteria
chemoheterotrophs
Give ex of some chemoheterotrophs (4)
(1)all animals (2)most fungi (3)protozoa (4)bacteria
During Cellular respiration, ( 1 ) is oxidized to ( 2) and ( 3 ) is reduced to ( 4 )
(1)glucose (2)CO2 (3)oxygen (4)water
During cellular respiration, What happens to glucose and oxygen? (2)
(1)glucose is oxidized to CO2
(2) oxygen is reduced to water
What does NAD stand for?
Nicotinamide adenine dinulceotide
During cellular respiration, (1) and (2) pass electrons down the ETC to ( 3 ) which powers (4)
(1)NADH (2)FADH2 (3)O2 (4)ATP synthesis
What are three exs of coenzymes? (3)
(1) nad (2) FMN and FAD (3) co enz A
NAME
accepts 2e and 1 p and is reduced during glyclosis
NAD
each and every step of the metabolic pathway is catergorized by (1).
pathways
what are two ways that cellular respiration can ocur>
(1)anaerobic (2) aerobic
How is energy produced?
by ATP generazition
What is the main area that glycolosis ocurs in?
the cystol of the cells aka the cytoplasm
During cellular respiration, (1) is oxidzed and (2) is reduced
(1)glucose (2)O2
What happens to O2 and glucose during cellular respiration?
Glucose is oxidizxed and O2 is reduced
What are the differ btwn prok and euk cellular respiration and why?
(1)prok=38 ATP
(2) euk = 36 ATP
(3)bc prok dont have a mitochondria and euk use 2 ATP to transport substances to the mitochondria
How is ATP's energy used?
it is broken by hydrolysis to liberate useful energy from the cell
What process is energy made by?
dehydration syntesis
NAME
is made by dehydration synthesis
ATP
NAME
is the utilization of water molecules
Hydrolysis
what is one way that ATP is generated?
phosphorylation
Where does substrate level phosphorlyation ocur?
ETC
What connects the three main stages of cellular respiration?
ATP production
What happens in Glyscosis to glucose (give the by products) ? (3)
(1)2 pryvuic acid (2) 2 ATP and (3)2NADH
NAME
the by products are 2 pryvuic acid, 2 ATP, and 2NADH
Glycolysis
What does TCA stand for?
tricarboxylic acid
What is the intermediate stage btwn Glysolysis and the krebs cycle?
Decarboxylation
what are the two phases of glycolysis?
(1)the energy investment phase (2) Energy yield phase
What is the energy investment phase?
step during Glycolysis in which energy is uitlized (2 ATP)
NAME
is the step during glycosis in which energy is utilized (2 ATP)
investment phase
NAME
is the step during glycolsis in which 4 ATP is made. leaving 2 ATP (bc two were used in the step before)
Energy yield phase
What is the energy yield phase of glycolsis?
4 ATP is made and you are left w. 2 ATP bc the step before used 2 ATP
What are the by products of Krebs cycle?
(1)6NADH+ H+ (2)2FADH2(3)4CO2(4)2ATP
NAME
the by products are 6NADH, 2FADH,4CO2, and 2ATP
the krebs cycle
During ETC 1 NADH comes from (1) and 1 FADH2 comes from (2)
(1)3ATP (2)2ATP
During the ETC, (1) comes from 3 ATP and (2) comes from 2 ATP
(1)1 NADH (2)1 FADH2
What are three main carriers oxidative phosphorylation?
(1)FMN (2)Cytochrome (3)Quinones
FMN, cytochrome, and Quionones are three main carriers for (1)
oxidative phosphorylation
FMN stands for (1)
Falivn Manonnulcotide
What is the abrev of cytochrome?
Cyta3, Ctyg
Quinones are also called (1)
Ubiquinones
During ETC , (1) is oxidized to NAD, (2) is reduced to (3) w the transfer of (4) and (5). Quione is oxidized to (6) and Cytochrome is reduced to (7)
(1)NADH (2)FMN (3)FMNH (3)2e(4)2H+ (5)quione (6)Cyta3
Draw the ETC in celluar respiration
See notes
Draw Krebs cycle
see notes
The proton motive forces drives ( 1 )
ATP synthase
What drives the ATP synthase?
the proton motive force
Where does the max production of ATP take place during Cellular respiration?
oxidative phosporylation
What are the three steps of oxiadtive phosporylation? (3)
(1)proton pump (2) proton motive force (3) ATP synthase
Where does oxidative phophpylation ocur?
in the mitochonrida
the mechanim that starts ATP is called the (1)
chemosomotic reaction
What is the chemosomotic reaction?
is the mechanism that starts the ATP in in oxidative phosphorylation
In aerobic respiration what is the final e acceptor in the ETC?
O2
What would life w/ our fermentation be like? (4)
no (1)yougurt (2) cheese (3) bread (4)alcholol
Desribe Fermentation?
(1)starts w. pyruvic acid (2) releases energy from oxidation of organic molecule
NAME
starts w pruvic acid and releases energy from oxidation of a organic molecule
Fermentation
Does fermentatio require O2?
no
Does fermentation use ETC or the Kreb's cycle?
no
What is the final electron acceptor in fermentation?
an organic molecule
NAME
the final elelectron acceptor is an organic molecule
fermentation
What are two types of fermentation?
(1)acidic (2)alcholoic
Give ex of a by product of acidic fermenation
latic acid
What are the by products of alcholoci fermenation? (2)
(1)ethanol (2)CO2
During a heart attack, blood flowing in the heart muscles is interupted by blockage of the coronoary artery. How would you expect the metabolism in the heart to change? (4)
(1)oxiaditve phosphorytion would slow down in the mitochondria (2)the rate of production of latic acid would be stimulated (3)the use of glucose by the muscle tissue would increase (4)the production of water in the mitochondria would be inhibitied
NAME
use energy from chemicals
chemotrophs
NAME
use light as energy
phototrophs
What are chemotrophs?
use energy from chemicals
What are phototrophs?
use light energy
What are two nutrional patterns that chemotrophs and photrophs tend to focus on?
(1)carbon (2)energy
NAME TYPE OF CELL
Gyclolsis ocues in the cytoplasm
prok and euk
NAME TYPE OF CELL
Intermediate stage ocurs in the cytoplasm (2)
prok and euk
NAME TYPE OF CELL
the kreb's cycle ocurs in the cytoplasm
prok
NAME TYPE OF CELL
the krebs cylce ocurs in the mitochonrdial matrix
Euk
Where does the kreb's cycle ocur in prok?
cytoplasm
Where does the kreb cycle ocur in euk?
mitochondiral matrix
Where does the ETC ocur in Prok?
the plasma membrane
Where does the ETC ocur in Euk?
the inner mitochondiral matrix
NAME TYPE OF CELL
the ETC ocurs in the plasma membrane
Prok
NAME TYPE OF CELL
the ETC ocurs in the inner-mitochondiral matrix
Euk
What is the biochemical test?
is done to see if the bacteria uses fermentation by if it produces latic acid or CO2 and alcholol
NAME
is done to see if the bacteria uses fermenation by if it produces latic acid or CO2 and alcholol
biochemical test
Draw the ETC
see notes
What is the electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration?
inorganic salts
NAME
the electron acceptors are inorganic salts
anaerobic respiration
What is the ATP yeild of fermentation?
2 ATP
What is the differ btwn anareboic and aerobic respiration?
anaerobic's electron acceptor is inorganic salts
(1) brings H+ from the mitochondrian matrix across the membrane to the intermembran space
ETC