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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the characteristics of Acute Osteomyelitis
-Abrupt onset
-Fever, localized pain, tenderness to palpation
-Heat, redness, and swelling as infection progresses
-Lab findings: Leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and sedimentation rate.
What causes acute osteomyelitis in neonates
S. aureus, Gp B Strep, E.coli, K. pneumoniae, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What causes osteomyelitis in older infants, children, and adults
S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, Kingella kingae
When can chronic osteomyelitis occur
Can occur with the agents responsible for acute osteomyelitis (especially if sequestrum has developed)
May also be indicative of granulomatous infectuion such as:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Coccidiodomycosis
Blastomycosis
Histoplasmosis
What are the characterisitics of septic arthritis
Abrupt onset
Pain, swelling of joint, fever, lost of mobility
One or more than one joint
Infection is acquired as osteomyelitis
Age-related distribution of causal agents
What causes septic arthritis in those age 16-40 years
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staph aureus
What is a furuncle
Skin abscess associated with follicule--epidermal
What is a carbuncle
Skin abscess (like furuncle) that involves dermis and subcuti--may be multiple
What is erysipelas
Spreading erythematous infection of dermis
Blocking of lymphatics
Typical on cheeks but also legs and feet
What are the common causes of Ringworm (tinea) and what structure is involved
Dermatophytes
(Epidermophyton, Microsporum Trichophyton)
Candida, Malezzesia
Keratinized epithelium is involved
What are the common causes of impetigo, and what structure is involved
Staph aureus
Strep pyogenes
The epidermis in involved
What are the common causes of erysipelas
Strep pyogenes
(Staph aureus)
The dermis is involved
What are the common causes of Folliculitis, furuncles, and carbuncles
Staph aureus
(Proprionobacterium acnes)
Hair follicles are involved
What are the common causes of cellulitis and carbuncles
Strep pyogenes
(Staph aureus)
Subcutaneous tissue and fat is involved
What are the common causes of necrotizing fasciitis
Strep pyogenes
Mixed microaerophilics and anaerobes
It involves the fascia
What are the common causes of myonecrosis and gangrene
Clostridium perfringens
(other clostridia)
Muscle is involved
These are characterisitics of what bacteria:
Gram +, catalase -, beta hemolytic, cocci in pairs and chains
M protein (multiple types) provokes anti-self cross reactive antibodies
Produces streptolysins, streptokinases, DNases, C5A peptidases
Hyaluronic acid capsule
Strep pyogenes (group A strep)
These are characteristics of what bacteria:
Gram +, catalase +, coagulase +, beta hemolytic, cocci in pairs and clusters
Protein A, hemolysins, coagulase, fibriolysin, Enterotoxins, Exfoliatins,
TSST-1 hyaluronidase
Staphylococcus aureus
These are characteristics of what bacteria:
Gram positive, sporeforming, anaerobic rods
Found in gut and soil
Alpha toxin (lecithinase) aides in spread in tissue
Numerous other toxins advance tissue necrosis and spread infection
Clostridium perfringens
These are characteristics of what bacteria:
-Gram (-) bacillus
-Oxidase positive
-Glucose non-fermenting
-Lactose negative on MacConkey agar
-Pyocyanin pigment produced (fluorescent)
-Mucoid capsule
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most life-threatening skin infection